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SENSITIVITY STUDY

In the study of sensitivity, they are based on the testimony of patients in response to certain stimuli. However, the study of sensitivity in children presents great difficulties, since a child cannot always clearly differentiate irritation, correctly analyze his feelings and adequately describe them. In young children, one often has to confine oneself to the study of only pain sensitivity. since the reaction to pain stimuli is most noticeable. In the study of sensitivity establish the nature and boundaries of the violation. First, surface sensitivity is examined, then deep.

Tactile sensitivity, or a sense of touch, is examined by lightly touching the skin with a cotton swab or brush. Irritations must be applied not too often and with irregular intervals. Avoid “waving” movements along the surface of the body so that there is no summation of irritations.

Pain sensitivity is determined using a pin or needle. Painful irritations should be alternated with tactile ones.

The temperature sensitivity is examined by touching test tubes with hot or cold water. Irritations are applied from top to bottom (face, neck, hands, torso, leg), and then sensitivity is compared on symmetrical sections of the left and right half of the body.

After studying surface sensitivity, deep (proprioceptive) sensitivity is examined: joint-muscle feeling, vibration sensitivity, pressure and weight. The joint-muscle feeling, or the feeling of position and movement, is examined using passive movements in small and large joints. The study begins with movements in the terminal phalanges of the fingers and toes. The patient must recognize the direction and location of the movement.

The feeling of pressure is determined by pressing a finger. The subject must distinguish between touch and pressure. The feeling of heaviness is examined using objects (weights) superimposed on an outstretched arm. The child distinguishes the difference in 15 - 20 g.

Vibration sensitivity is investigated by applying the legs of a vibrating tuning fork to a particular part of the body.

In clinical practice, complex types of sensitivity are also investigated: a sense of localization of irritation, a two-dimensional spatial feeling (the definition with closed eyes of a figure, letter or figure drawn by a blunt object on the skin), stereognosis - the ability to recognize objects by touch with their eyes closed.

Sensitivity disorders can be quantitative and qualitative.
Quantitative include loss of all types of sensitivity (anesthesia) or their decrease (hyposthesia). The loss of any one type of sensitivity can be expressed (pain - analgesia, tactile - actually anesthesia, temperature - thermoanesthesia, articular-muscular feeling - bianesthesia, stereognosis - asterognosia, etc.). Sometimes sensitivity can be increased (hyperesthesia). Qualitative disturbances of sensitivity include a split in pain (when a person pricks with a needle, the patient first feels a touch and only then pain), a distorted perception of the stimulus when heat is perceived as cold, an injection as a touch of hot, etc. (dysesthesia), dissociation of sensitivity - an isolated violation of certain types of sensitivity while preserving other types on the same side, etc.

An important place among sensitivity disorders is pain. They can be local (felt in the area of ​​application of irritation), projected (projected from the site of irritation to the skin area innervated by this nerve), radiating (occur in the area of ​​innervation of one branch of the nerve and are transmitted to other branches of the same nerve), reflected (appear when diseases of internal organs and are localized in certain areas of the skin, which are called Zakharyin-Ged zones) (Fig. 52).

Fig. 52.

Zakharyin - Geda Zones (diagram)

:

1 - lungs; 2 - capsule of the liver; 3 - stomach; 4 - liver; 5 - kidneys; 6 - small intestine; 7 - the ureter; 8 - heart; 9 - the bladder; 10 - genitourinary organs; 11 - uterus
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SENSITIVITY STUDY

  1. SENSITIVITY STUDY
    In the study of sensitivity, they are based on the testimony of patients in response to certain stimuli. However, the study of sensitivity in children presents great difficulties, since a child cannot always clearly differentiate irritation, correctly analyze his feelings and adequately describe them. In young children, often have to be limited to research only
  2. SENSITIVITY STUDY METHODOLOGY
    Tactile (tactile) sensitivity, with which a person recognizes tangential irritations, is examined, offering the researcher with closed eyes to record every irritation applied to various parts of the body surface in the form of touches with a thin paper or a piece of cotton wool. The study of pain sensitivity is to recognize the irritation caused by the tip
  3. Sensitivity and types of sensory impairment
    Sensitivity is the body's ability to perceive irritations emanating from the environment or from its own tissues and organs. The analyzer consists of three departments: the receptor, the conductor, and the cortical. Receptors are the terminal formations of sensitive nerve fibers that perceive changes in the body or outside it and transmit it in the form of impulses.
  4. RESTORE SENSITIVITY
    When reading this section, one should take into account the fact that we are talking about the possibility of restoration of sensitivity, and not about its normalization. With anatomical damage to the spinal cord, restoration of sensitivity proceeds in a certain sequence. The first to restore surface skin sensitivity. The gradually appearing foci of skin sensitivity expand and
  5. Sensitivity
    The primary perception of all stimuli in the human body is carried out by receptors - specific cells that perceive the effects of the external and changes in the internal environment of the body. Receptors-Exteroreceptors Proprioreceptors Interoreceptors General features of the three-neuronal paths of surface and deep sensitivity • The first neuron is located in the intervertebral node.
  6. SENSITIVITY VIOLATION
    In the clinic, it is customary to distinguish between types and types of sensitive disorders. The following types of sensory impairment exist, which are distinguished depending on a qualitative or quantitative change in sensations. Anesthesia - the complete loss of any kind of sensitivity - is due to the fact that, due to some obstacles, the pulses do not reach the corresponding cortical paths
  7. SENSITIVITY VIOLATION
    Pain syndrome occurred in 87 patients (100%). Local soreness in the area of ​​trauma and pain symptoms accompanying spastic convulsive events were noted in 87 patients (100%); phantom pains - in 13 patients (14.9%); radicular pain - in 87 patients (100%); causalgia was observed in 17 patients (19.5%). In addition to pain, a violation of all types of sensitivity was observed below
  8. Sensitivity
    Sensitivity - the body's ability to perceive irritation emanating from the environment or from its own organs and tissues. In physiology, the entire totality of afferent systems is united by the concept of reception. Sensitivity is a special case of reception, when afferent impulses lead to the formation of sensations. Not everything that undergoes reception is felt. For example: afferent to
  9. Sensitivity and its disorders
    Sensitivity is the body's ability to perceive irritations emanating from the environment or from its own tissues and organs. Teaching I.P. Pavlova on analyzers laid the foundation for a natural understanding of the nature and mechanisms of sensitivity. Each analyzer consists of a peripheral (receptor) department, a conductor part and a cortical department. Receptors - Special
  10. Hearing sensitivity
    Our auditory organ is very sensitive. With normal hearing, we are able to distinguish sounds that cause negligible (calculated in fractions of a micron) vibrations of the eardrum. The sensitivity of the auditory analyzer to sounds of different heights is not the same. The human ear is most sensitive to sounds with a frequency of oscillation from 1000 to 3000. As you decrease or
  11. SENSITIVITY TYPES
    The nervous system developed in the process of the body’s interaction with the external environment. This process is dynamic, the nervous system changes and is constantly improved in phylogenesis and ontogenesis. When signals from the external and internal environment arrive, the nervous system provides supportive reactions and maintains homeostasis. A complex of afferent systems through which information is received at
  12. PARTICULAR SYMPTOMATOLOGY OF SENSITIVITY DISORDERS
    Damage to the trunk of the peripheral nerve causes a violation of all types of sensitivity in the area of ​​its innervation, i.e., according to the peripheral mononeuric type. This is because nerve fibers pass through the nerve trunk for various types of sensitivities. The defeat of individual nerve fibers can be more or less deep, which leads to unequal violation of certain types
  13. Polyneuritic type of sensitivity disorder
    The zone and nature of sensory impairment detected in a patient can help to resolve the issue of localization of his pathological focus. Topical diagnosis will undoubtedly become more reliable if, at the same time, information about other changes in the neurological status associated with sensitivity disorders is taken into account. With the defeat of various levels of the system
  14. Cortical Type Disorder
    (Internet) Sensitivity - the body's ability to perceive irritation emanating from the environment or from its own organs and tissues. In physiology, the entire totality of afferent systems is united by the concept of reception. Sensitivity is a special case of reception, when afferent impulses lead to the formation of sensations. Not everything that undergoes reception is felt. For example:
  15. Sensitivity
    Under the sensitivity refers to the ability to the elementary form of mental reflection - sensation. Unlike irritability, the concept of “Ch.” Uses the criterion of signaling: Ch. - reflection by the body of such influences that are not directly biologically significant (eg, due to their energy weakness), but can signal the presence (change) of other conditions environment
  16. PARTICULAR SYMPTOMATOLOGY OF SENSITIVITY DISORDERS
    Damage to the trunk of the peripheral nerve causes a violation of all types of sensitivity in the area of ​​its innervation, i.e., according to the peripheral mononeuric type. The defeat of the nerve plexus (cervical, brachial, lumbar, sacral) causes sensitive, motor and autonomic disorders in the area innervated by the nerves, combined with pain and paresthesia and relate to
  17. SENSITIVITY SYNDROMES AND SENSITIVITY FUNCTIONS
    Three main types of sensitivity disorders are distinguished depending on the distribution borders: peripheral - in the area of ​​nerve innervation, segmental - in the area of ​​innervation of the segment of the spinal cord, posterior (sensitive) root or intervertebral ganglion, conductor - below the level of damage to the conductors of sensitivity in the spinal cord or brain. Depending on the level of lesions
  18. Adenosine Sensitive VT
    Adenosine does not directly affect the ventricular contractile fibers and Purkinje fibers, however, it counteracts the positive inotropic and electrophysiological effects of catecholamines on these structures. B. Lerman et al. (1986) reported cases of VT, sensitive to adenosine. In 4 patients (3 men and 1 woman; age - 25 to 32 years) without signs of heart disease
  19. Level of undifferentiated sensitivity
    The lowest, germinal level of development of the mental, corresponding, according to A.N. Leont'ev, undifferentiated sensitivity, follows immediately the dopsychic form of life and the dopsychic form of reflection. Accordingly, the phase of background activity (always responding, as shown in Section 3 of Chapter 1, to the previous level of development) is carried out here at the pre-mental level and
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