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RESEARCH OF THE VEGETATIVE NERVOUS SYSTEM

In the study of the autonomic nervous system, attention is paid to the regulation of vascular tone, skin and autonomic reflexes, thermoregulation, autonomic innervation of the eye, saliva and tearing.

Vascular regulation is investigated by analyzing cardiovascular reflexes.

The eye-heart reflex is caused by pressing on the anterolateral surfaces of the eyeballs for 20-30 s. Normally, the pulse slows down by 8-10 beats. In the case of an increase in the tone of the parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system, the pulse slows down by more than 10 strokes, and when the tone of the sympathetic division increases, the pulse remains unchanged or more frequent.

The solar reflex is caused by pressing on the solar plexus area (between the xiphoid process of the sternum and the umbilicus) for 20-30 s. At the same time, the pulse rate decreases by 4-12 beats per minute and the blood pressure decreases. With an increase in the tone of the parasympathetic division, the pulse slows down by more than 12 beats, but with an increase in the tone of the sympathetic division, it remains unchanged or more frequent.

The clinostatic reflex occurs when the subject moves from a vertical to a horizontal position: the pulse normally slows by 10-12 beats per minute.
The orthostatic reflex, on the contrary, is observed when the subject undergoes a transition from a horizontal to a vertical position and is expressed normally in an increase in pulse rate of 10–12 beats per minute.

During the study of skin vegetative reflexes, dermographism and the “goose-skin” reflex are evaluated.

Dermographism is caused by stroke irritation of the skin with a blunt object. At the same time, on the spot of irritation, redness of the skin in the form of a band is normal. With an increase in the tone of the parasympathetic division of the nervous system, the reddening band can be very wide and persist for a long time, and with an increase in the tone of the sympathetic division, blanching is observed (white dermographism).

The “goose-skin” reflex, or pilomotor, is caused by the rapid cooling of the skin with ether or pinching by its irritation in the shoulder girdle. In response, the phenomenon of "goose bumps". This reflex disappears with damage to the spinal cord in the area of ​​innervation of the affected segments.

To assess the state of autonomic innervation, thermoregulation (skin temperature), sweating (sweat reflexes), urination and defecation regulation, tearing and salivation, autonomic innervation of the eye (pupillary reflex, accommodation) are also examined.
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RESEARCH OF THE VEGETATIVE NERVOUS SYSTEM

  1. RESEARCH OF THE VEGETATIVE NERVOUS SYSTEM
    In the study of the autonomic nervous system, attention is paid to the regulation of vascular tone, skin and autonomic reflexes, thermoregulation, autonomic innervation of the eye, saliva and tearing. Vascular regulation is investigated by analyzing cardiovascular reflexes. The eye-heart reflex is caused by pressing on the anterolateral surfaces of the eyeballs for 20-30 s.
  2. METHODS OF RESEARCH OF THE VEGETATIVE NERVOUS SYSTEM
    The autonomic nervous system (sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions) regulates the activity of internal organs, smooth muscles, endocrine apparatus, tissue trophism, thermoregulation and other metabolic processes. The basis of this regulation is the reflex principle. Study of skin and vegetative reflexes Skin and vegetative reflexes are evaluated in the study of local, reflex
  3. Study of the connection of the sinus node with the autonomic nervous system
    Check the reactivity of the sinus node with a particular autonomic tone. Signs, symptoms, and ECG manifestations of the sick sinus syndrome can be secondary to hyper- or hyporeactivity of the sinus node with a corresponding tone of the parasympathetic nervous system. Arguss et al. [108] showed that the well-known phenomenon of age-related slowing of sinus rhythm can
  4. VEGETATIVE DEPARTMENT OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM, OR VEGETATIVE NERVOUS SYSTEM
    The vegetative part of the nervous system is the part of the unified nervous system that regulates the metabolism, the work of the internal organs, the heart, the blood vessels and the glands of the external and internal secretion, smooth muscle. It should be borne in mind that the function of regulating the entire vital activity of the organism is performed by the central nervous system, and especially its highest section, the cortex.
  5. VEGETATIVE NERVOUS SYSTEM
    The autonomic nervous system innervates the internal organs, blood vessels, involuntary muscles, glands, skin. Vegetative means “vegetable” as opposed to somatic - “animal”. However, this division of the single nervous system is conditional, since the autonomic nervous system innervates not only the internal organs, but also the apparatus of voluntary movement, sensitivity and even the central nervous system.
  6. Diseases of the autonomic nervous system
    The autonomic nervous system is present in the cerebral cortex, hypothalamic region, brain stem, spinal cord; there are also peripheral parts of the vegetative system. The presence of a pathological process in any of these structures, as well as a functional disruption of the connection between them, may cause the appearance of vegetative
  7. VIOLATION OF THE FUNCTIONS OF THE VEGETATIVE NERVOUS SYSTEM
    The vegetative nervous system innervates the smooth muscles of all organs of the body, the exocrine and endocrine glands, the heart. It regulates such vital functions as respiration, blood circulation, digestion, metabolism, maintains a constant body temperature, regulates the functions associated with the continuation of the species. The autonomic nervous system is not subject to direct voluntary control, in
  8. VEGETATIVE (AUTONOMOUS) NERVOUS SYSTEM
    The autonomic (autonomic) nervous system (Fig. 139) is part of the nervous system that provides innervation of the internal organs and systems, endocrine glands, blood and lymph vessels, and other organs. It also coordinates the activities of all internal organs, regulates metabolic, trophic processes in all organs and parts of the human body, maintains the constancy of internal
  9. VEGETATIVE NERVOUS SYSTEM
    In the autonomic nervous system, there are segmental and suprasegmental sections (. 18). The segmental division includes the nuclei of a number of cranial nerves and lateral horns of the spinal cord, as well as sympathetic and parasympathetic nodes, autonomic fibers that make up the roots, spinal and cranial nerves, and vegetative nerves. Segmental apparatus of the sympathetic part of the nervous system
  10. PHYSIOLOGY AND PHARMACOLOGY OF THE VEGETATIVE NERVOUS SYSTEM
    Lewis Landsberg, James B. Young, Lewis Landsberg, James B. Young The functional organization of the autonomic nervous system The autonomic nervous system innervates the vessels, smooth muscle of the internal organs, exocrine and endocrine glands and parenchymal cells in all organ systems. Functioning at a subconscious level, it quickly and continuously responds to disturbances,
  11. Vegetative nervous system
    It should be noted that one of the most important effects of cardiac glycosides is associated with their effect on the vegetative nervous system [17, 18]. Cardiac glycosides significantly increase vagal tone, and therefore, increase the release of acetylcholine. This is especially noticeable in the atria, where the parasympathetic innervation is better developed. Amplified release of acetylcholine causes hyperpolarization
  12. Vegetative nervous system
    The vegetative nervous system regulates the activity of the internal organs, located at different levels of the spinal cord and brain, and is represented by the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems. Sympathetic centers are located segmentally in the lateral horns of the spinal cord at the level of the thoracic and lumbar regions. Parasympathetic innervation is provided by centers located in the trunk of the head.
  13. The autonomic nervous system and the main lesion syndromes
    The autonomic (autonomous) nervous system regulates all internal processes of the body: the functions of internal organs and systems, glands, blood and lymphatic vessels, smooth and partially transversely striped muscles, and sensory organs. It provides the body's homeostasis, i.e. relative dynamic constancy of the internal environment and the stability of its basic physiological functions
  14. Vegetative nervous system (autonomous)
    The autonomic nervous system innervates the smooth muscles of all organs, the heart and glands, and is responsible for the nervous regulation of the internal environment. The peripheral autonomic nervous system consists of two parts: the sympathetic and the parasympathetic. The centers of these departments are located at different levels of the central nervous system. Sympathetic fibers originate from the pectoral and 2-3 upper lumbar segments of the spinal cord.
  15. Vegetative nervous system
    The vegetative nervous system regulates the activity of the internal organs, located at different levels of the spinal cord and brain, and is represented by the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems (Fig. 53). Sympathetic centers are located segmentally in the lateral horns of the spinal cord at the level of the thoracic and lumbar regions. Going beyond the spinal cord, the fibers of the sympathetic nerves form
  16. The structure of the autonomic and limbic nervous system and their functions
    The vegetative nervous system regulates all processes in the body (the function of all internal organs, maintaining homeostasis), and also it performs an adaptation-trophic function. Vegetative nerve fibers are present in all cranial and spinal nerves. In the autonomic nervous system, the central and peripheral sections are distinguished. The central department is formed by all
  17. DISEASES OF THE VEGETATIVE NERVOUS SYSTEM
    Diseases of the autonomic nervous system can be caused by damage to its various parts, ranging from peripheral autonomic nerve fibers to the cerebral cortex. Diseases of the autonomic nervous system are characterized by the fact that most of them are caused not by loss of function, but by irritation and increased excitability of certain departments. Migraine. This disease
  18. Dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system
    General information The dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system, or dysautonomy, occurs as a segmental or generalized disease of the central and peripheral nervous system. Neurological symptoms - generalized, segmental or focal. The disease can be congenital, hereditary and acquired. The most common symptoms include impotence, dysfunction.
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