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STUDY OF HIGHER CORK FUNCTIONS

Methods for the study of higher cortical functions are described in detail in the relevant courses (psychology, childhood psychopathology). We will only point out that in the study of the neuro-logical status, gnosis, praxis, speech, memory, thinking are investigated.

The necessary information about the mental state of children is obtained during the observation of their mimicry, manner of play, behavior in the new environment, etc.

For the study of visual gnosis using a set of items. Subjects are presented to a patient and asked to be named, described, compared in size, etc. In addition, use a set of color, monotone and contour pictures. Assess the ability to recognize objects, faces, subjects. Along the way, they also check the visual memory: children are presented with several pictures, then they are mixed with several new ones. After that, children are asked to choose familiar pictures. At the same time, work time, perseverance, fatigue are taken into account.

In the study of the auditory gnosis, the patient is asked to identify the sounds familiar to him: the ticking of the clock, the ringing of the bell, the sound of drinking water. Estimate and perception of the direction of sound.

When determining the tactile gnosis, stereognosis is evaluated - the recognition of an object by touch with closed eyes.

During the study of praxis, the patient is offered to perform a number of tasks (sit down, threaten with a finger, comb your hair, etc.). In addition, patients are given the task to act with imaginary objects (they are asked to show how they eat soup, how they make phone calls, how they cut wood, etc.). Evaluate the ability to imitate demonstrated actions.

For the study of gnosis and praxis, special mental techniques are also used. Among them, an important place is occupied by the use of Segen boards with indentations of different shapes, in which you need to enclose the shapes corresponding to the indentations, the techniques of Koos (from the cubes of different colors you need to fold the pattern corresponding to the one shown in the picture), Link's cube (27 cubes are painted in different ways cube in such a way that all its sides are of the same color). When using all these techniques, it is very important to assess how the child performs the task - whether he acts by trial and error or according to a certain plan.

Separately analyze the features of reading, oral and written speech (speech research methods are covered in detail in the course of speech therapy).

To study the memory used a number of psychological techniques. One of them is to memorize 10 words. Examine 10 words and examine them. Then the same words impose 5 more times. After each repetition, the number of reproduced words is noted. Finally, the patient is asked to reproduce these words in 50 to 60 minutes (without prior presentation). Based on the data obtained, it is possible to draw up a memorization curve
Usually, after the third repetition, 9 or 10 words out of 10 are reproduced and this number is stored in the fourth and fifth samples. After 1 h, 8 to 10 words remain in the memory. When memorizing poorly, the number of reproduced words is kept low. This method is intended primarily for the study of mechanical memory.

In the study of logical, associative memorization use a different technique. The patient is asked to memorize a series of words. For the best memorization of words it is proposed to use the corresponding picture. For example, during the memorization of the word “lunch” you can use a picture with the image of bread. After the patient selects the pictures in response to the words, they are put aside. After 40 - 60 minutes, he is given pictures and asked to recall the words corresponding to them. It is not only the number of reproduced words that is important, the features of the associations used are also significant - primitive, complex, ornate.

For the study of thinking and his disorders use special psychological techniques. Often used method of calculating the coefficient of intelligence (IQ).

A variety of tests are used to assess intelligence. An important point is the test for the classification of objects. The subject must combine images with the image of animals, plants, tools, household items in groups on the principle of "suitable for appropriate." In the process of performing the task, one can judge how deep or superficial the judgments of the subject are, how much he is able to classify and generalize concepts.

Another test is the test for the “exclusion of the fourth superfluous”. Before the survey put four pictures. One of them he should postpone (exclude) as not suitable to the others. The simplest set may consist of images of a Christmas tree, birch, oak and chamomile, more complex - of images of a spoon, fork, plate and bread. In the latter case, the subject may say that there is nothing superfluous in the set, since all this is necessary for eating. In fact, the concept of "dishes" combines three objects and allows you to exclude the image of bread.

In assessing the intelligence of children, especially with speech development delays, visual materials are widely used, in particular, the Segen board. The child must put in each recess the subject of the appropriate configuration (circle, square, cross, etc.). At the same time, they pay attention to whether the subject acts by the method of blind tests or immediately “by eye” correlates the shape of the figure and the recesses.

Based on the analysis of gnosis, praxis, speech, memory and thinking, they conclude that there is a psychological stock, personal characteristics and the degree of age maturity of the child’s psyche.
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STUDY OF HIGHER CORK FUNCTIONS

  1. SYNDROMES OF HIGHER CORK FUNCTION DISTURBANCES
    Disorders of gnosis (agnosia) Gnosis (Greek gnosis - knowledge) is a complex set of analytical-synthetic processes aimed at recognizing an object as a whole and its individual characteristics. Disorders of gnosis are called agnosias. In accordance with the types of human senses, there are visual, auditory, tactile (somatosensory), olfactory, gustatory agnosia. Self
  2. SYNDROMES OF HIGHER CORK FUNCTION DISTURBANCES
    Violations of spatial representations. The perception of space (spatial gnosis) is considered as the result of the joint activity of various analyzers, among which motor-kinesthetic is of particular importance. In children with cerebral palsy, there is an underdevelopment of spatial gnosis, which is associated with underdevelopment or damage to the parietal lobe of large
  3. HIGH CORTEX FUNCTIONS
    The cerebral cortex is essentially a gigantic intermediate center on the path from receptor apparatus to effector. All information coming from the external and internal environment flows here, it is compared with current needs, past experience and converted into teams, often covering all life processes. It develops fundamentally new solutions, and
  4. Higher cortical functions and their violations
    In the bark g. M. All the information comes from the external and internal environment, where it is compared with the needs, past experience and is transformed into teams covering all life processes. Different areas of the cortex are associated with receptors and form the cortical parts of the analyzers. Violations. Agnosia - frustration, impossibility of knowledge in the field of one analyzer. There are visual, auditory, tactile,
  5. The problem of the development of higher mental functions
    The history of the development of higher mental functions is a completely unexplored area of ​​psychology. Despite the tremendous importance of studying the processes of development of higher mental functions for the correct understanding and understanding of all aspects of the child’s personality, the limits of this area have not been clearly outlined, methodologically or
  6. Genesis of higher mental functions
    The third plan of our research is closest to the historical method of considering higher forms of behavior adopted by us. Analysis and structure of higher mental processes lead us close to clarifying the basic question of the entire history of a child’s cultural development, to clarifying the genesis of higher forms of behavior, that is, the origin and development of those mental forms that make up
  7. The social genesis of higher mental functions
    If, therefore, a sign organization is the most important distinguishing feature of all higher mental functions, then it is natural that the first question facing the theory of higher functions is the question of the origin of this type of organization. While traditional psychology was looking for the origin of symbolic activity in a series of "discoveries" or other intellectual operations of a child,
  8. The origin and development of higher mental functions
    The foundation of modern domestic age psychology is the formulated by L.S. Vygotsky (1896-1934) fundamental ideas and the system of basic concepts. In the 1920–1930s he developed the foundations of the cultural - historical theory of the development of the psyche. Although Vygotsky did not have time to create a complete theory, but a general understanding of mental development in childhood, contained in the writings of a scientist,
  9. Basic rules for the development of higher mental functions
    The general provisions underlying the historical theory of higher mental functions that we develop allow us to draw some conclusions related to the most important rules that govern the development process we are interested in. 1. The history of the development of each of the higher mental functions is not a direct continuation and further improvement of the corresponding elementary function, but
  10. Analysis of Higher Mental Functions
    We have already said that the first and main form of our research is the analysis of higher forms of behavior; but the situation in modern psychology is such that, before approaching the analysis of problems, we face the problem of analysis itself. In modern psychology, as a result of a crisis affecting its very foundation, we are changing its methodological foundations before our very eyes. In this regard, in
  11. The problem of development and decay of higher mental functions
    The problem of higher mental functions is the central problem of all human psychology. In modern psychology, even the basic theoretical principles on which human psychology must be built as a system are still insufficiently highlighted, and the development of the problem of higher mental functions should be central to solving this problem. In modern foreign psychology
  12. Method of studying higher mental functions
    The technique of the modern psychological experiment is closely tied to the general fundamental questions of psychological theory and, in the final analysis, has always been only a reflection of how the most important problems of psychology were solved. That is why the criticism of the basic views on the nature and development of mental processes inevitably should lead to a revision of the main points,
  13. The structure of higher mental functions
    The concept of psychological analysis that we sought to develop in the previous chapter leads us to a new understanding of the mental process as a whole and its nature. The most significant change that has occurred recently in psychology is to replace the analytical approach to the mental process with a holistic, or structural, approach. Most influential
  14. The problem of the sign in the formation of higher mental functions
    The collected materials lead us to psychological positions, the significance of which goes far beyond the limits of analyzing a narrow and specific group of phenomena, which until now has been the main subject of our study. The functional, structural, and genetic patterns that are found in the study of evidence are, upon closer examination, of more general patterns and
  15. DEVELOPMENT OF HIGHER MENTAL FUNCTIONS
    Sensory development. At the early school age, the child continued to master sensory standards, painted, learned to perceive not only illustrative educational material, but also reproductions of paintings, and sometimes came on a tour of the museum. Organized and accompanied by the explanations of the teacher or guide, the display of works of art was intended to involve children in the perception of art. However it was
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