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Methods for the study of higher cortical functions are described in detail in the relevant courses (psychology, childhood psychopathology). We will only point out that in the study of the neuro-logical status, gnosis, praxis, speech, memory, thinking are investigated.

The necessary information about the mental state of children is obtained during the observation of their mimicry, manner of play, behavior in the new environment, etc.

For the study of visual gnosis using a set of items. Subjects are presented to a patient and asked to be named, described, compared in size, etc. In addition, use a set of color, monotone and contour pictures. Assess the ability to recognize objects, faces, subjects. Along the way, they also check the visual memory: children are presented with several pictures, then they are mixed with several new ones. After that, children are asked to choose familiar pictures. At the same time, work time, perseverance, fatigue are taken into account.

In the study of the auditory gnosis, the patient is asked to identify the sounds familiar to him: the ticking of the clock, the ringing of the bell, the sound of drinking water. Estimate and perception of the direction of sound.

When determining the tactile gnosis, stereognosis is evaluated - the recognition of an object by touch with closed eyes.

During the study of praxis, the patient is offered to perform a number of tasks (sit down, threaten with a finger, comb your hair, etc.). In addition, patients are given the task to act with imaginary objects (they are asked to show how they eat soup, how they make phone calls, how they cut wood, etc.). Evaluate the ability to imitate demonstrated actions.

For the study of gnosis and praxis, special mental techniques are also used. Among them, an important place is occupied by the use of Segen boards with indentations of different shapes, in which you need to enclose the shapes corresponding to the indentations, the techniques of Koos (from the cubes of different colors you need to fold the pattern corresponding to the one shown in the picture), Link's cube (27 cubes are painted in different ways cube in such a way that all its sides are of the same color). When using all these techniques, it is very important to assess how the child performs the task - whether he acts by trial and error or according to a certain plan.

Separately analyze the features of reading, oral and written speech (speech research methods are covered in detail in the course of speech therapy).

To study the memory used a number of psychological techniques. One of them is to memorize 10 words. Examine 10 words and examine them. Then the same words impose 5 more times. After each repetition, the number of reproduced words is noted. Finally, the patient is asked to reproduce these words in 50 to 60 minutes (without prior presentation). Based on the data obtained, it is possible to draw up a memorization curve
Usually, after the third repetition, 9 or 10 words out of 10 are reproduced and this number is stored in the fourth and fifth samples. After 1 h, 8 to 10 words remain in the memory. When memorizing poorly, the number of reproduced words is kept low. This method is intended primarily for the study of mechanical memory.

In the study of logical, associative memorization use a different technique. The patient is asked to memorize a series of words. For the best memorization of words it is proposed to use the corresponding picture. For example, during the memorization of the word “lunch” you can use a picture with the image of bread. After the patient selects the pictures in response to the words, they are put aside. After 40 - 60 minutes, he is given pictures and asked to recall the words corresponding to them. It is not only the number of reproduced words that is important, the features of the associations used are also significant - primitive, complex, ornate.

For the study of thinking and his disorders use special psychological techniques. Often used method of calculating the coefficient of intelligence (IQ).

A variety of tests are used to assess intelligence. An important point is the test for the classification of objects. The subject must combine images with the image of animals, plants, tools, household items in groups on the principle of "suitable for appropriate." In the process of performing the task, one can judge how deep or superficial the judgments of the subject are, how much he is able to classify and generalize concepts.

Another test is the test for the “exclusion of the fourth superfluous”. Before the survey put four pictures. One of them he should postpone (exclude) as not suitable to the others. The simplest set may consist of images of a Christmas tree, birch, oak and chamomile, more complex - of images of a spoon, fork, plate and bread. In the latter case, the subject may say that there is nothing superfluous in the set, since all this is necessary for eating. In fact, the concept of "dishes" combines three objects and allows you to exclude the image of bread.

In assessing the intelligence of children, especially with speech development delays, visual materials are widely used, in particular, the Segen board. The child must put in each recess the subject of the appropriate configuration (circle, square, cross, etc.). At the same time, they pay attention to whether the subject acts by the method of blind tests or immediately “by eye” correlates the shape of the figure and the recesses.

Based on the analysis of gnosis, praxis, speech, memory and thinking, they conclude that there is a psychological stock, personal characteristics and the degree of age maturity of the child’s psyche.
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    Disorders of gnosis (agnosia) Gnosis (Greek gnosis - knowledge) is a complex set of analytical-synthetic processes aimed at recognizing an object as a whole and its individual characteristics. Disorders of gnosis are called agnosias. In accordance with the types of human senses, there are visual, auditory, tactile (somatosensory), olfactory, gustatory agnosia. Self
    Violations of spatial representations. The perception of space (spatial gnosis) is considered as the result of the joint activity of various analyzers, among which motor-kinesthetic is of particular importance. In children with cerebral palsy, there is an underdevelopment of spatial gnosis, which is associated with underdevelopment or damage to the parietal lobe of large
    The cerebral cortex is essentially a gigantic intermediate center on the path from receptor apparatus to effector. All information coming from the external and internal environment flows here, it is compared with current needs, past experience and converted into teams, often covering all life processes. It develops fundamentally new solutions, and
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  5. The problem of the development of higher mental functions
    The history of the development of higher mental functions is a completely unexplored area of ​​psychology. Despite the tremendous importance of studying the processes of development of higher mental functions for the correct understanding and understanding of all aspects of the child’s personality, the limits of this area have not been clearly outlined, methodologically or
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