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SENSITIVITY VIOLATION

In the clinic, it is customary to distinguish between types and types of sensitive disorders.

The following types of sensory impairment exist, which are distinguished depending on a qualitative or quantitative change in sensations.

Anesthesia - the complete loss of any kind of sensitivity - is due to the fact that, due to some obstacles, the pulses do not reach the corresponding cortical zones through their conductors. Depending on the damage to the analyzer, pain anesthesia (analgesia), temperature (term anesthesia), localization (topanesthesia), articular-muscular (bianesthesia), etc. are distinguished.

Hypesthesia is a partial loss of sensitivity, when due to an increase in the threshold of excitability, sufficiently strong stimuli cause only a weak sensation.

Hyperesthesia - an increase in sensitivity as a result of a decrease in the threshold of excitability in the cerebral cortex due to the summation of the irritation caused by the pathological process and the irritation caused during the study.

Dysesthesia is a perverse perception of irritation, for example, touching the surface of the skin causes pain, thermal irritation - a feeling of heat or cold.

Polyesthesia - is the perception of one irritation as several.

Synesthesia - the perception and sensation of irritation, not only at the place of its application, but also in some other area.

Hyperpathy is a feeling of vague, poorly localized, unpleasant irritation, which occurs some time after the application of irritation and lasts after its termination. Hyperpathy is observed with changes in the pathways at any level from the terminal nerve apparatus to the cerebral cortex. As a result of the defeat of phylogenetically young, more vulnerable systems with a low threshold of perception, only strong irritants are perceived.

Paresthesias - numbness, numbness, burning sensations. heat, cold, tingling, electrical discharges, etc. — are caused by pathological processes localized at any level of the analyzer, and are often early signs of a nervous system disease.

Pain, signaling a trouble in the body, occurs when the pathological process irritates sensitive analyzers at any level, including receptor apparatuses, conductors and centers. The defeat of not all parts of the analyzer cause painful phenomena to the same extent. The pain is especially intense with damage to the spinal and cranial nerves (their roots and nodes), as well as the thalamus. Pain is a type of protective biological reaction that has developed during the evolution of the animal world.

It is customary to distinguish between local, projective, radiating and reflex pain.

Local pain is considered pain that coincides with the site of damage to the nerve trunk or root. The patient experiences pain during palpation along the nerve trunk.

Projection pain is noted far from the localization of the pathological process, usually it spreads to the innervation zone, for example, shooting pain in the legs with spinal dry, phantom pain.

Radiating pain occurs when irritation from one branch of a nerve is transmitted to another, as a result of which pain is felt in the innervation zone of the nerve.

Reflex pain is associated with the transmission of irritation from one nerve to another, for example, the Zakharyin-Ged zone, which is explained by viscero-sensory reflexes.

Types of impaired sensitivity are distinguished depending on the location on the patient’s body of zones with altered sensitivity.
Distinguish between peripheral, segmental and conductor types of sensitivity disorders.

The peripheral type of sensitivity violation is mono-and polyneuritic.

Mononeuritic - with damage to one nerve trunk — consists in the violation of all types of sensitivity in the innervation zone of a given nerve; polyneuritic and and, or diets als and, with multiple lesions of the nerve trunks, is a violation of sensitivity in the form of “gloves” or “socks”.

The segmental type of sensitivity disorder can be radicular and posterior.

The radicular type is noted in lesions of the posterior roots, when all types of sensitivity fall out in the zones of their innervation. On the surface of the skin, such zones correspond to dermatomas, and zones of sensitivity disorders are segmental in nature: circular stripes on the trunk and longitudinal stripes on the arms and legs (see color. Incl., III, p. 32). This type is observed with the defeat of several roots. The defeat of one root, as a rule, does not cause disorders due to the presence of overlapping zones located above and below the affected roots.

The posterior threshold, or split, dissociated type is associated with damage to the posterior horns of the gray matter of the spinal cord. Dissociation occurs as a result of the defeat of the second neurons of pain and temperature sensitivity while maintaining the functions of the conductors of deep types of sensitivity, since they do not enter the posterior horn. Dissociation can manifest itself in the form of complete or partial loss of pain and

peratural sensitivity while maintaining other species (tactile, vibrational, muscular-articular).

The conductor type of sensitivity disorder occurs as a result of damage to the sensitive conductors within the spinal cord or brain. This type of sensitivity violation is characterized, firstly, by a disorder of pain and temperature sensitivity on the side opposite to the location of the pathological focus, and secondly, with localization of the focus within the spinal cord, the upper level of disorders of these types of sensitivity decreases in 1-2 segments, which is explained by as already noted, the cross of the second neurons of the lateral dorsal-thalamic pathway is not strictly in the horizontal plane, but at an angle (obliquely upward).
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SENSITIVITY VIOLATION

  1. Sensitivity and types of sensory impairment
    Sensitivity - the body's ability to perceive irritations emanating from the environment or from its own tissues and organs. The analyzer consists of three departments: the receptor, the conductor, and the cortical. Receptors are the terminal formations of sensitive nerve fibers that perceive changes in the body or outside it and transmit it in the form of impulses.
  2. SENSITIVITY VIOLATION
    Pain syndrome occurred in 87 patients (100%). Local pain in the area of ​​injury and pain symptoms accompanying spastic convulsive events were noted in 87 patients (100%); phantom pains - in 13 patients (14.9%); radicular pain - in 87 patients (100%); causalgia was observed in 17 patients (19.5%). In addition to pain, a violation of all types of sensitivity was observed below
  3. Sensitivity and its disorders
    Sensitivity - the body's ability to perceive irritations emanating from the environment or from its own tissues and organs. Teaching I.P. Pavlova on analyzers laid the foundation for a natural-science understanding of the nature and mechanisms of sensitivity. Each analyzer consists of a peripheral (receptor) department, a conductor part and a cortical department. Receptors - Special
  4. SENSITIVITY SYNDROMES AND SENSITIVITY FUNCTIONS
    Three main types of sensitivity disorders are distinguished depending on the distribution borders: peripheral - in the area of ​​nerve innervation, segmental - in the area of ​​innervation of the segment of the spinal cord, posterior (sensitive) root or intervertebral ganglion, conductor - below the level of damage to the conductors of sensitivity in the spinal cord or brain. Depending on the level of lesions
  5. Syndromes of impaired sensory and sensory functions
    Three main types of sensitivity disorders are distinguished depending on the distribution borders: peripheral - in the area of ​​nerve innervation, segmental - in the area of ​​innervation of the segment of the spinal cord, posterior (sensitive) root or intervertebral ganglion, conductor - below the level of damage to the conductors of sensitivity in the spinal cord or brain. Depending on the level of lesions
  6. SENSITIVITY STUDY
    In the study of sensitivity, they are based on the testimony of patients in response to certain stimuli. However, the study of sensitivity in children presents great difficulties, since the child cannot always clearly differentiate irritation, correctly analyze his feelings and adequately describe them. In young children, often have to be limited to research only
  7. SENSITIVITY STUDY
    In the study of sensitivity, they are based on the testimony of patients in response to certain stimuli. However, the study of sensitivity in children presents great difficulties, since the child cannot always clearly differentiate irritation, correctly analyze his feelings and adequately describe them. In young children, often have to be limited to research only
  8. RESTORE SENSITIVITY
    When reading this section, one should take into account the fact that we are talking about the possibility of restoration of sensitivity, and not about its normalization. With anatomical damage to the spinal cord, restoration of sensitivity proceeds in a certain sequence. The first to restore surface skin sensitivity. The gradually appearing foci of skin sensitivity expand and
  9. Sensitivity
    The primary perception of all stimuli in the human body is carried out by receptors - specific cells that perceive the effects of the external and changes in the internal environment of the body. Receptors-Exteroreceptors Proprioreceptors Interoreceptors General features of the three-neuronal paths of surface and deep sensitivity • The first neuron is located in the intervertebral node.
  10. PARTICULAR SYMPTOMATOLOGY OF SENSITIVITY DISORDERS
    Damage to the trunk of the peripheral nerve causes a violation of all types of sensitivity in the zone of its innervation, i.e., according to the peripheral mononeuric type. This is because nerve fibers pass through the nerve trunk for various types of sensitivities. The defeat of individual nerve fibers can be more or less deep, which leads to unequal violation of certain species
  11. Sensitivity
    Sensitivity is the body's ability to perceive irritation emanating from the environment or from its own organs and tissues. In physiology, the entire totality of afferent systems is united by the concept of reception. Sensitivity is a special case of reception, when afferent impulses lead to the formation of sensations. Not everything that undergoes reception is felt. For example: afferent to
  12. Polyneuritic type of sensitivity disorder
    The zone and nature of sensory impairment detected in a patient can help to resolve the issue of localization of his pathological focus. Topical diagnosis will undoubtedly become more reliable if, at the same time, information about other changes in the neurological status associated with sensitivity disorders is taken into account. With the defeat of various levels of the system
  13. PARTICULAR SYMPTOMATOLOGY OF SENSITIVITY DISORDERS
    Damage to the trunk of the peripheral nerve causes a violation of all types of sensitivity in the zone of its innervation, i.e., according to the peripheral mononeuric type. The defeat of the nerve plexus (cervical, brachial, lumbar, sacral) causes sensitive, motor and autonomic disorders in the area innervated by the nerves, combined with pain and paresthesias and relate to
  14. Hearing sensitivity
    Our auditory organ is very sensitive. With normal hearing, we are able to distinguish sounds that cause negligible (calculated in fractions of a micron) vibrations of the eardrum. The sensitivity of the auditory analyzer to sounds of different heights is not the same. The human ear is most sensitive to sounds with an oscillation frequency of 1000 to 3000. As you decrease or
  15. SENSITIVITY TYPES
    The nervous system developed in the process of the body’s interaction with the external environment. This process is dynamic, the nervous system changes and is constantly improved in phylogenesis and ontogenesis. Upon receipt of signals from the external and internal environment, the nervous system provides supportive reactions and maintains homeostasis. A complex of afferent systems through which information is received in
  16. SENSITIVITY STUDY METHODOLOGY
    Tactile (tactile) sensitivity, with which a person recognizes tangential irritations, is examined, offering the researcher with closed eyes to register each irritation applied to various parts of the body surface in the form of touches with a thin paper or a piece of cotton wool. The study of pain sensitivity is to recognize the irritation caused by the tip
  17. Cortical Type Disorder
    (Internet) Sensitivity - the body's ability to perceive irritation emanating from the environment or from its own organs and tissues. In physiology, the entire totality of afferent systems is united by the concept of reception. Sensitivity is a special case of reception, when afferent impulses lead to the formation of sensations. Not everything that undergoes reception is felt. For instance:
  18. Sensitivity
    Under the sensitivity refers to the ability to the elementary form of mental reflection - sensation. In contrast to irritability in the concept of "Ch." the signaling criterion is used: Ch. - reflection by the body of such influences that are not directly biologically significant (e.g., due to their energy weakness), but can signal the presence (change) of other environmental conditions,
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