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Features of neurosurgical operations in childhood

The skull of a newborn has a number of features. The bones of the skull are thin, elastic, the skull has fontanelles, seams between the bones of the cranial vault are not formed. The formation of the skull is completed by 2 years, when the cranial sutures are closed. Closure of fontanelles ends earlier. At an early age, in some cases, during operations on the brain, accesses through unclosed fontanels can be used, the presence of unclosed sutures allows them to be used for trepanation. Thin bones of a child can be dissected with scissors.

When planning operations, one should take into account the peculiarity of topographic relationships in connection with the incomplete formation of the skull, the flattening of its base and the weak severity of the so-called cranial fossae.

In young children under 2 years of age, operations in the sitting position are impossible due to weakness of the cervical muscles and insufficient development of the articular ligamentous apparatus in the cervical spine.
There are also significant features in the anesthetic management of neurosurgical operations.
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Features of neurosurgical operations in childhood

  1. Physiological characteristics of childhood
    A decisive prerequisite for successful infusion therapy in childhood is awareness of changes in the most important biochemical data depending on age. Water content and distribution The total fluid content gradually decreases during the prenatal period (Table 30). A similar trend remains after birth, with the most rapid change occurring between
  2. Features and hygiene of the digestive system in childhood
    The normal development of the child is in close connection with the activity of his digestive organs. Digestive disorder leads to an eating disorder, metabolic disturbance, which is often accompanied by a violation of the functions of many organs and systems. The digestive organs of a child, especially young children, are characterized by functional immaturity and increased vulnerability. At the same time, the exchange rate
    The main indicators of a child’s abilities are his growth and development. These two common processes have some differences. By such a term as growth, we mean an increase in growth, body weight and other physical indicators, while development is the "growth" of the intellectual, behavioral, social structures of the brain. All this is controlled by many factors, both inside the child and around.
    The formation and development of the immune system serves as the basis for age-related resistance or, conversely, the susceptibility of the child's body to certain diseases of a bacterial, viral, fungal, parasitic nature, as well as manifestations of immunopathological reactions that change with age. By analogy with the development of the brain, the process of maturation of the immune system continues in a child for many years. During
  5. Features of the reaction to surgical trauma in infancy and childhood
    In principle, we can assume that from the 2nd to 3rd week of life, the same periods of the postoperative course are observed as in adults, which were described by Moore (3.8.2). Immediately after injuries and injuries, water and electrolytes move both between the damaged and normal tissues (the formation of the “third space”), and between the intracellular and extracellular spaces. This leads to
    Water, electrolytes and blood pH in the body are in constant interaction, which can be represented in the form of the following balance: Water = Electrolytes = blood pH A child’s body contains relatively more water (as a percentage of body weight) than an adult. The younger the child, the relatively more water in his body due to the larger interstitial space. But still
    Increased longevity enhances the importance of geriatric surgery. About 25% of patients in surgical clinics are over 65 years old (Rueff S
  8. Immunity, its types. Features of immunity at an early age. Allergy and anaphylaxis. Measures for the prevention of infectious diseases in institutions.
    Immunity - the body's immunity to the causative agents of any disease: 1. Natural: * Congenital - inherited; * Acquired - produced as a result of illness, produces its own antibodies; 2. Artificial: * Active - use of vaccines (ready-made antibodies); * Passive - injected serum, which is made from the patient’s blood plasma
    About 5-10% of patients in surgical intensive care units are patients with traumatic brain injury. With multiple injuries, brain damage is always a serious complication. * By J.
  10. Pathophysiological features worthy of attention in neurosurgical patients and patients with traumatic brain injury
    Spatial limitations of the cranial cavity The volume of the cranial cavity surrounded by bones is approximately constant. An increase in the volume of the contents of the cranial box leads to compression of the brain and at the same time to relative changes in the existing ratio of the substance of the brain, the contents of blood vessels and cerebrospinal fluid. The result of brain compression is drowsiness, which can
  11. Periods of childhood and their characteristics
    One of the characteristic features of a child’s body that distinguishes it from an adult organism is intensive growth and continuous development. Depending on the regular changes occurring in the child’s body, the following periods of his life are distinguished: I. intrauterine development period 1. embryonic development phase (embryo) 2. placental development phase (fetus) II. period
    Pernicious anemic syndrome in childhood is very rare. An analysis of the literary material and our own observations allows us to distinguish the following forms of pernicious (B12-folic deficiency) anemia of childhood. 1. Nutritive megaloblastic anemia of infants. It occurs mainly in premature babies and in children who were on artificial
    Motivational characteristic of the topic. Knowledge of the topic materials is necessary for the successful assimilation of infections of children and adolescents in clinical departments. In the practical work of a doctor, it is necessary to conduct a clinical anatomical analysis of the manifestations of an infectious pathology. The general purpose of the lesson. By morphological characteristics, learn to determine the causes and mechanisms of the development of infections of children and adolescents
  14. The value of anthropometry in childhood.
    It is generally recognized that in their practice, pediatricians very often weigh and measure their patients. Indeed, the study of the growth and development of children is extremely important for the children's doctor in the prevention and diagnosis of diseases by recognizing the norm and deviations from normal values. Although the processes of growth and development cannot be considered independent of each other, still for practical purposes
  15. The causes of aggression in childhood
    In recent years, scientific interest in child aggression has grown significantly. They continue to shock the news that the children are killing each other to death. A significant increase in aggressive children is one of the most acute problems not only for teachers and psychologists, but also for society as a whole. In addition, an aggressive child creates a lot of problems not only to others, but also to himself.
  16. Poisoning in childhood
    The article “Poisoning” is located in Section 15 “Poisoning”. Poisoning (intoxication) is a pathological condition that develops as a result of the interaction of a living organism and poison. The role of the latter can be practically any chemical compound that has entered the body in an amount that can cause a violation of vital functions and create a danger to life. The toxicity of the substance is greater
  17. To the problem of periodization of mental development in childhood
    Periodization of mental development in childhood is a fundamental problem of child psychology. Its development has important theoretical significance, since through the determination of periods of mental development and through the identification of patterns of transitions from one period to another, the problem of the driving forces of mental development can ultimately be solved. It can be argued that any
  18. Kidney Failure
    Renal failure refers to global impaired renal function. There are acute and chronic renal failure. Acute renal failure associated with developmental abnormalities or polycystic kidney disease (the presence of cysts - cavities in the kidneys) occurs during the neonatal period. Significantly more common acute renal failure with the accumulation of harmful
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