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Polyneuritic type of sensitivity disorder

The zone and nature of sensory impairment detected in a patient can help to resolve the issue of localization of his pathological focus. Topical diagnosis will undoubtedly become more reliable if, at the same time, information about other changes in the neurological status associated with sensitivity disorders is taken into account.

When various levels of the system of general types of sensitivity are affected, certain neurological syndromes are characteristic.

1) Peripheral nerves, sensitive or mixed, having fibers in their composition that provide sensitive innervation of certain parts of the body. These areas do not correspond to dermatomes due to the fact that most peripheral nerves (with the exception of only the intercostal nerves) form in the nerve plexuses that are functionally connected with several segments of the spinal cord located adjacent to each other. Having revealed a sensitivity disorder in the innervation zone of a certain peripheral nerve (or nerves), we can talk about the patient having a neural variant of a sensitivity violation by the peripheral type and, thus, determine the affected nerve (Fig. 3.4a, the right half of the human body).

On the peripheral nerve from a certain part of the body, impulses of all types of sensitivity pass, therefore, with its total defeat in the corresponding zone, a decrease or complete loss of all types of sensitivity (hypesthesia or anesthesia) occurs. However, due to the fact that sometimes fibers of a certain modality can be selectively affected in the peripheral nerve, the degree of violation of different types of sensitivity in the innervation zone of the affected nerve may be different.
In addition, it must be borne in mind that this zone is partially overlapped by neighboring territories innervated by neighboring nerves, therefore, even a dissection of the peripheral nerve is usually manifested by anesthesia only in the central (autonomous) part of the zone innervated by it.

Due to the fact that most peripheral nerves are mixed (contain sensitive, motor and autonomic fibers), in the area innervated by the affected nerve, motor and autonomic disorders are possible at the same time as the sensitive ones.

2) The defeat of the nerve plexus leads to impaired sensitivity and other functions in areas innervated by peripheral nerves that form in this plexus.

3) In case of multiple lesions of the distal parts of the peripheral nerves (polyneuropathy), the sensitivity is usually impaired in the symmetrical parts of the limbs “by the type of gloves and socks”. Such a disorder can be called a distal (polyneuritic) variant of the violation of sensitivity in the peripheral type (Fig. 3.5a).

In this variant, sensitivity disorders in the same distal parts of the limbs are possible motor disorders (peripheral distal paresis) and autonomic disorders.

SENSITIVITY DISORDERS TYPES



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Polyneuritic type of sensitivity disorder

  1. Cortical Type Disorder
    (Internet) Sensitivity - the body's ability to perceive irritation emanating from the environment or from its own organs and tissues. In physiology, the entire totality of afferent systems is united by the concept of reception. Sensitivity is a special case of reception, when afferent impulses lead to the formation of sensations. Not everything that undergoes reception is felt. For example:
  2. Sensitivity and types of sensory impairment
    Sensitivity is the body's ability to perceive irritations emanating from the environment or from its own tissues and organs. The analyzer consists of three departments: the receptor, the conductor, and the cortical. Receptors are the terminal formations of sensitive nerve fibers that perceive changes in the body or outside it and transmit it in the form of impulses.
  3. Extapyramidal system and its disorders
    The extrapyramidal system includes conducting and motor pathways that do not pass through the pyramids of the medulla oblongata. These pathways regulate the feedback between the spinal cord, brain stem, cerebellum and cortex. The extrapyramidal system includes a caudate nucleus, a shell of a lenticular nucleus, a pale ball, subtalamic nucleus, black matter and red nucleus. Center
  4. Type of cnidosporidia and type of microsporidia.
    Of greatest practical importance is the Myxosporidia group - fish parasites that are of great practical importance. Mixosporidia (mucous sporozoans) have been known since the middle of X! Xv. The life cycle of myxosporidia passes entirely in the host, which becomes infected, swallowing the spores scattered in the external environment. They are multicellular and have two or more interconnected leaflets. At
  5. SENSITIVITY SYNDROMES AND SENSITIVITY FUNCTIONS
    Three main types of sensitivity disorders are distinguished depending on the distribution borders: peripheral - in the area of ​​nerve innervation, segmental - in the area of ​​innervation of the segment of the spinal cord, posterior (sensitive) root or intervertebral ganglion, conductor - below the level of damage to the conductors of sensitivity in the spinal cord or brain. Depending on the level of lesions
  6. RESTORE SENSITIVITY
    When reading this section, one should take into account the fact that we are talking about the possibility of restoration of sensitivity, and not about its normalization. With anatomical damage to the spinal cord, restoration of sensitivity proceeds in a certain sequence. The first to restore surface skin sensitivity. The gradually appearing foci of skin sensitivity expand and
  7. Sensitivity
    The primary perception of all stimuli in the human body is carried out by receptors - specific cells that perceive the effects of the external and changes in the internal environment of the body. Receptors-Exteroreceptors Proprioreceptors Interoreceptors General features of the three-neuronal paths of surface and deep sensitivity • The first neuron is located in the intervertebral node.
  8. SENSITIVITY STUDY
    In the study of sensitivity, they are based on the testimony of patients in response to certain stimuli. However, the study of sensitivity in children presents great difficulties, since a child cannot always clearly differentiate irritation, correctly analyze his feelings and adequately describe them. In young children, often have to be limited to research only
  9. SENSITIVITY STUDY
    In the study of sensitivity, they are based on the testimony of patients in response to certain stimuli. However, the study of sensitivity in children presents great difficulties, since a child cannot always clearly differentiate irritation, correctly analyze his feelings and adequately describe them. In young children, often have to be limited to research only
  10. PARTICULAR SYMPTOMATOLOGY OF SENSITIVITY DISORDERS
    Damage to the trunk of the peripheral nerve causes a violation of all types of sensitivity in the zone of its innervation, i.e., according to the peripheral mononeuric type. This is because nerve fibers pass through the nerve trunk for various types of sensitivities. The defeat of individual nerve fibers can be more or less deep, which leads to unequal violation of certain types
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