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Causes of nervous diseases and the main forms of disorders of the nervous system

The external environment interacts closely with the human body. Various adverse changes in external conditions, in particular climatic, the influence of various biological factors, such as pathological agents, can adversely affect the human body and its nervous system. The nature of food, housing conditions, etc. are also important.

In some cases, psychogenic factors in the form of anxiety, excitement, fear, or family conflict, causing excessive tension of the nervous system, can be the causes of nervous disorders. All this can lead to the development of reactive neurosis, shifts from the endocrine system, etc. In childhood, various negatively colored emotions can also arise that develop in a child in connection with conflicts with the school team or an unfavorable family situation - parental disputes, drunkenness, divorce, etc. Much contributes to the development of childhood neurosis in the wrong mode, for example, the lack of proper alternation of work and rest, lack of sleep, limited stay in the fresh air, poor and uneven nutrition. This can also include early smoking, alcohol consumption, premature and perverse satisfaction of sexual drives (masturbation). All this can lead to a weakening of the child's body, worsen the state of the nervous system, causing increased excitability, rapid exhaustion of the main nervous processes.

Among them, there are such forms as inflammatory processes of the brain, meninges and peripheral nerves that arise as a result of exposure to various pathogens. An infection specific to the nervous system is called neuroinfection. As a result of neuroinfection, encephalitis (inflammation of the brain), meningitis (inflammation of the meninges), poliomyelitis (inflammation of the substance of the spinal cord), neuritis (inflammation of the peripheral nerves) develop. In addition to neuroinfection, which selectively affects the nervous system, there are still common infections that can have a negative effect on all parts of the nervous system. Infections such as measles, whooping cough, rubella, scarlet fever, and mumps can be complicated by secondary meningitis and encephalitis. With these complications, both inflammatory and toxic or allergic processes develop. Sometimes a trivial inflammatory process goes directly to the meninges or brain matter. For example, purulent inflammation of the middle ear can spread to the adjacent tissues of the meninges, causing secondary purulent meningitis. In some cases, the causative agent of an infectious process (for example, tuberculosis bacillus) from the main focus spreads through the body through the bloodstream and enters the meninges, causing secondary tuberculous meningitis.

Various chemical poisons can cause intoxication of the nervous system, including lead and mercury compounds, alcohol, herbicides, pesticides (widely used in agriculture), and some medicines (quinine, streptomycin, etc.). Pesticides have a negative effect on the developing fetus during its intrauterine formation, and in various age periods of postnatal development, causing meningitis, encephalitis, neuritis and polyneuritis.

Substances that are formed in the body itself and, for certain reasons, accumulate in it in concentrations that exceed physiological levels (auto-toxicity) can also have a toxic effect.
For example, with insufficient renal function, uremia occurs, with a violation of some metabolic processes - phenylketonuria, etc. Traumatic lesions of the brain and spinal cord, peripheral nerves are well known.

As a result of some insufficiently known reasons, cells of the nervous system can sometimes receive pathologically enhanced development, which leads to the formation of tumors (neoplasms) in the brain. One group of tumors can develop directly from the meninges, the actual brain tissue, in various areas of the brain. In other cases, the development of neoplasms, often of a malignant nature (cancerous tumors), may be associated with the introduction of cancer cells from other organs affected by the cancer process (metastases). So, for example, with lung cancer, there may be metastases to the brain.

The brain is also susceptible to parasitic diseases, in particular helminthiosis (echinococcosis, cysticercosis). Helminths are usually introduced into the brain by blood flow from the liver.

The brain is richly supplied with blood through a dense network of blood vessels - arteries and veins. The vascular network of the brain performs the most important function of nerve cell nutrition. A large group of the so-called vascular diseases of the nervous system, and especially the vessels of the brain, is known. More often, the basis of vascular diseases is a violation of the elasticity of the walls of the arteries, narrowing of their lumen due to the formation of fibrous plaques. Vascular disease leads to various forms of cerebrovascular accident and is usually accompanied by a violation of important functions - motor, speech, mental, expressed to varying degrees.

These forms of diseases are associated with visible damage to the structure of the brain (cells and fibers) and therefore are called organic lesions of the nervous system. Usually, this definition is contrasted with another group of disorders of the nervous system, which are referred to as the so-called functional diseases (neuroses), in which no structural disorders are detected. Neurosis usually occurs as a result of an overstrain of the nervous system (disruption of the nervous activity) and is accompanied by various disorders of the somatic system (disorders of the cardiovascular system, digestion, sexual activity, the presence of pain, etc.), and some changes in the psyche (mood changes, lethargy, depression, obsessive thoughts, decreased ability to work).

Among nervous diseases, a group that belongs to the so-called hereditary diseases is especially distinguished. They are associated with incorrect chromosome division (extra or missing chromosomes) or with gene mutations.
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Causes of nervous diseases and the main forms of disorders of the nervous system

  1. Demilienizing diseases of the nervous system. Etiology, pathogenesis, clinical forms of diseases
    DEMIELINIZING DISEASES. The main pathological manifestation is the selective destruction of the myelin sheath. Myelin: - in the central nervous system - oligodendrocyte - in the PNS - lemmocyte (Schwann cells) The thicker the myelin sheath, the faster the anterior nerve impulse. Demyelinating diseases: - multiple sclerosis - acute multiple disseminated encephalomyelitis - retrobulbar neuritis -
  2. Diseases of the nervous system. Diseases accompanied by an increase in intracranial pressure. Cerebrovascular disease. Cerebral infarction. Spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage. Infectious lesions of the central nervous system. Alzheimer's disease. Multiple sclerosis.
    1. The earliest changes in neurons during blood flow arrest 1. cytolysis 4. microvacuolization 2. tigrolysis 5. wrinkling of neurons 3. hyperchromatosis 2. The most common causes of cerebral infarction 1. stenotic atherosclerosis 2. thromboembolism 3. true polycythemia 4. thrombosis 5. embolism fatty with a fracture of the tubular bones 3. Cerebral edema of the cytotoxic type occurs at 1.
  3. The main causes and risk factors for the development of neuropsychic instability
    Most experts involved in the diagnosis of neuropsychiatric resistance believe that the main causes that form the NIP are: - the consequences of psychogenic traumatic situations; - mild degrees of mental underdevelopment or a low general educational level; - alcoholism, drug addiction and substance abuse, including among parents; - consequences of neuroinfections and
  4. ORGANIZATION OF TREATMENT AND PEDAGOGICAL HELP FOR CHILDREN WITH NERVOUS AND NERVO-MENTAL DISORDERS
    Neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders in children are a consequence of early organic brain damage that occurred in utero, during childbirth or immediately after it. Such pathological conditions require constant treatment and medical and pedagogical correction of impaired functions of the nervous system. However, these measures can only be effective if such
  5. Dysfunction of the nervous system caused by a hereditary metabolic disorder
    Disorders of the nervous system during congenital metabolic disorders arise as a result of the influence of several factors: • direct damage to nerve cells due to an enzyme deficiency; • accumulation of certain unsplit metabolic products in the outside of the cell fluid; • damage to other organs (eg, liver); • damage to cerebral vessels.
  6. Violation of the functions of the autonomic nervous system
    The autonomic nervous system innervates the smooth muscles of all organs of the body, exocrine and endocrine glands, and the heart. It regulates such vital functions as respiration, blood circulation, digestion, metabolism, maintains a constant body temperature, regulates the functions associated with procreation. The autonomic nervous system is not subject to direct arbitrary control, in
  7. The main manifestations of neuropsychic disorders
    In recent years, teachers and doctors have been concerned about the deterioration of the health status of schoolchildren, which is closely related to their neuropsychic status: most children have various forms of neurosis and neurotic conditions that not only form their own clinic, but also contribute to the development of disorders of vital organs and body systems . The relationship between health status is noted.
  8. Hereditary diseases of the nervous system
    Hereditary diseases of the nervous system is a large heterogeneous group of diseases, which are based on genetically determined damage to peripheral nerves, spinal cord, and skeletal muscles. Classification I. Hereditary metabolic diseases occurring with damage to the nervous system. 1. Inherited disorders of amino acid metabolism:
  9. Infectious diseases of the nervous system
    Infectious diseases of the nervous system are quite common. They are caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa. Neurological disorders can develop as a result of direct penetration of the pathogen into the nervous system (neuroinfection). Sometimes they develop against the background of other diseases. The selectivity of brain damage in neuroinfections is due to the so-called
  10. Violation of the functions of the autonomic nervous system
    A violation of peristalsis of the large intestine was observed in all 87 patients (100%). Dysfunction of the urinary system was observed in all 87 patients -100%. Violation of thermoregulation was observed in all 87 patients -100%. Violation of the trophic function of the nervous system from dystrophic manifestations to pressure sores always accompanies spinal injury. Dystrophic changes
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