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Causes of the development of brain abscess

An abscess of the brain is a local accumulation of pus located in the tissue of the brain. Usually, an abscess of the brain occurs as a secondary disease, provided that there is an infectious focus located outside the central nervous system. Mandatory is the penetration of an infectious agent into the brain. At the same time, not one but several abscesses may exist.

Etiology and pathogenesis. Most often, the following microorganisms are causative agents of brain abscess: streptococci, staphylococci, Escherichia coli, fungi, toxoplasma, in more rare cases, the abscess is caused by anaerobic bacteria. According to their pathomorphology, brain abscesses are divided into capsular (interstitial) and non-capsular (parenchymal).

Interstitial abscesses are characterized by the presence of a connective tissue capsule. The capsule separates the abscess region from the brain tissue. Typically, the capsule is quite pronounced and contains a large number of glial elements.

Parenchymal abscesses do not contain a connective tissue capsule. With regard to the prognosis and clinical course, parenchymal abscesses are less favorable, since the accumulation of pus has no boundaries and freely passes into the brain tissue.

The pathomorphological form of an abscess depends on the reactivity of the affected organism and the virulence of the infectious agent.

Interstitial abscesses are formed in the case of weak virulence of the infectious agent and high resistance of the body. Parenchymal abscesses occur with low reactivity of the affected organism and high virulence of the infectious agent.

There are several mechanisms for the development of brain abscesses: metastatic, contact, traumatic.

The metastatic mechanism of occurrence is characterized by the ingestion of an infectious agent from an existing purulent focus by hematogenous route. Purulent foci may be abscesses located on the neck, thigh or foot, osteomyelitis, purulent inflammatory diseases of the lungs and pleura. The contact mechanism for the development of an abscess of the brain is characterized by the transition of the purulent process from the foci located in the formations of the skull to the brain tissue. Such abscesses include otogenic and rhinogenic. Otogenic abscesses are usually a complication of diseases such as mastoiditis, purulent otitis media.

Rhinogenic abscesses of the brain are a complication of purulent inflammatory diseases of the sinuses. In addition, a contact abscess can be a complication of purulent diseases of the orbit, oral cavity and pharynx. The traumatic mechanism of a brain abscess occurs in very rare cases. The cause of the traumatic abscess is a traumatic brain injury, as a result of which the infectious agent penetrates the crushed brain tissue and causes the development of local purulent inflammation.

The occurrence of an abscess in the event of a closed head injury is due to autoinfection. In this case, the microflora, acquiring virulent properties, acts as an infectious agent.
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Causes of the development of brain abscess

  1. Brain Abscess
    A brain abscess is a capsule-limited accumulation of brain detritus, white blood cells, pus, and bacteria. The main causative agents The etiological cause of brain abscess can be bacteria, fungi, protozoa and helminths. Of the bacterial pathogens, the most common are vermin streptococci (S. anginosus, S. constellatus and S. intermedius), which occur in 70% of cases. IN
  2. Brain Abscess
    Clinic. An abscess of the brain is a limited abscess in the brain tissue - intracerebral, or epidural, subdural. Caused by streptococci, staphylococci, pneumococci, etc. Contact (otogenically determined), metastatic (pneumonia, lung abscess), bronchiectatic abscesses and abscesses occurring during open craniocerebral injuries are pathogenetically distinguished.
  3. Brain abscesses. Surgery
    An abscess of the brain is a limited accumulation of pus in the substance of the brain. Most often, abscesses are intracerebral, less often epidural or subdural. Etiology and pathogenesis. The cause of brain abscess is the spread of infection caused by streptococci, staphylococci, pneumococci, meningococci. Often found Escherichia coli, Proteus, mixed flora. The way
  4. The clinical picture of brain abscess
    During the development of an abscess, four stages are distinguished: initial, latent, explicit and terminal. The entire clinical picture of the abscess is characterized by the presence of the following groups of symptoms: general infectious, cerebral, focal. The initial stage (meningoencephalic) is characterized by damage to the meninges in a limited area. There is a gradual spread of the focus from the brain
  5. Diagnosis of treatment of brain abscess
    Diagnosis includes a correct and complete history, an objective examination and additional methods (instrumental and laboratory). It is necessary to determine the presence in the body of chronic foci of infection, previous craniocerebral trauma, as well as the presence of general infectious, cerebral and local symptoms of brain abscess. It is necessary to carry out radiographic
  6. BRIEF INFORMATION ABOUT Encephalitis, Meningitis, and Brain Abscess
  7. BRIEF INFORMATION ABOUT Encephalitis, Meningitis, and Brain Abscess
  8. Brain malformations
    Malformations of the brain and spinal cord can be extremely diverse. Some of them lead to severe disability or are generally incompatible with life. We will focus only on the most significant in terms of possible clinical consequences. Hydrocephalus can be open or closed, due to congenital stenosis of the brain water supply (sylvian water supply). Often
  9. Congenital malformations of the central nervous system. Damage to the brain in the perinatal period
    Congenital abnormalities at the time of the study, as a rule, reflect a particular stage of brain development. In most cases, the etiology and pathogenesis of malformations of the central nervous system remain unknown. Etiological agents can lead either to insufficient normal development, or destructive changes in the nervous tissue. It is known that during the segmental development of the head
  10. Brain. Appearance, weight. Brain departments
    The cephalic brain is part of the central nervous system of the vast majority of the chordates, its cephalic end; in vertebrates is located inside the skull. The brain is a symmetrical structure, like most other parts of the body. At birth, his weight is approximately 0.3 kg, while in an adult he is approx. 1.5 kg When examining the brain, attention is primarily attracted by two large hemispheres,
  11. Abstract. Brain circulation and brain response to hypoxia, 2012
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  12. Intracerebral abscess (brain and cerebellum).
    Klinsky kartina of an otogenous intracerebral abscess consists of three groups of symptoms: general symptoms of an infectious disease, cerebral symptoms, and signs of local brain damage depending on the location of the abscess. With the introduction of antibiotics and sulfonamides, often and uncontrollably used for any febrile conditions, several
  13. Frontal lobe abscesses
    The most common source of infection is the frontal sinus, less commonly, the ethmoid labyrinth; other paranasal sinuses are less important. Abscessing usually occurs with acute or exacerbation of chronic inflammation in the sinuses. The shape, location, and size of the rhinogenic abscess of the brain are inconsistent, since the posterior wall of the frontal sinus - the main pathway for the spread of infection - varies in
  14. Otogenic abscess of the brain and cerebellum. Clinic, diagnosis and treatment principles
    Most brain abscesses are located in the white matter of the temporal arch of the cerebrum or in the cerebellum, i.e. adjacent to the affected temporal bone. Abscesses in the parietal, occipital, frontal lobe are much less common; on the opposite side (contralateral abscesses). Clinic The course of brain abscess is divided into 4 stages: 1. Initial (1-2 weeks) is accompanied by mild
    A clinical picture similar to tumors can be observed with solitary tuberculosis, cystic arachnoiditis, syphilitic gum, echinococcosis and cysticercosis, brain abscess and other diseases. The first clinical acquaintance with the patient often does not provide an opportunity for an accurate diagnosis. Therefore, it is customary to denote by the term “intracranial volumetric process” those diseases that are subsequently
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  17. Brain injuries
    A brain injury occurs when a head is struck or a penetrating wound occurs in which brain function is impaired. The manifestations of a brain injury can be small, moderate, or severe, depending on the severity of the brain injury. Mild manifestations of trauma can consist of a slight change in consciousness, while severe trauma can result in loss of consciousness and
  18. Tumors of the brain and spinal cord
    Brain tumors make up 10% of all neoplasms and 4.2% of all diseases of the nervous system. Spinal cord tumors are 6 times less common than brain tumors. Etiology. Among the causes of the development of brain tumors are dysembryogenesis. It plays a role in the development of vascular tumors, malformations, ganglioneuroma. Genetic factor matters in the development of vascular
  19. CORTEX
    As soon as we got to our feet and took an upright position, the same thing happened with our nervous system. Whereas in other animals, the spinal cord is horizontal and the brain in front, in our case the spinal cord is vertical and the brain is at the top, crowning the whole body. In the process of development of the nervous system, new, and, as we might say, “higher”
  20. Cerebral edema
    The development of cerebral edema is closely related to circulatory disorders (Scheme 6.4). On the one hand, circulatory changes in the brain can be direct causes of edema. Edema can occur with a sharp increase in blood pressure in the cerebral vessels due to a significant increase in total blood pressure (edema is called hypertensive). Cerebral ischemia may also be
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