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Syndromes of impaired sensory and sensory functions

Three main types of sensitivity disorders are distinguished depending on the distribution borders: peripheral - in the area of ​​nerve innervation, segmental - in the area of ​​innervation of the segment of the spinal cord, posterior (sensitive) root or intervertebral ganglion, conductor - below the level of damage to the conductors of sensitivity in the spinal cord or brain.

Depending on the level of lesions of the nervous system, various disturbances in sensitivity are observed. With damage to the trunk of the peripheral nerve or nerve plexus, all types of sensitivity are violated in the zone of innervation of this nerve or nerves of this plexus (peripheral type of sensitivity disorder).

Multiple nerve damage (polyneuritis) causes a violation of sensitivity in the arms and legs, like gloves and stockings.

The defeat of the root or intervertebral node causes a violation of all species of sensitivity in the corresponding segmental zones. In addition, severe girdle pain and shingles occur (with lesions of the intervertebral node).

Damage to the horn of the spinal cord causes a split disorder of sensitivity: loss of surface sensitivity while maintaining deep sensitivity. Such violations are detected in the corresponding affected segments of the segmental zone on the affected side.

Damage to the lateral column of the spinal cord (where the fibers of the surface sensitivity pass) leads to disruption of the surface sensitivity on the side opposite to the focus below the lesion site (conductive type of sensitivity violation). The defeat of the posterior columns of the spinal cord (where the fibers of deep sensitivity pass) leads to the loss of deep sensitivity in the conductor type on the side of the focus from the level of its localization to the bottom down. Due to the loss of joint-muscular feeling, an attack develops (sensitive, or spinal).

Sensitive attack differs from cerebellar in that it can be compensated by the control of vision over the patient’s body position, it can normally stand with its eyes open, however, with closed eyes it staggers.

Damage to half of the spinal cord causes loss of articular-muscular feeling (damage to the posterior columns) on the affected side, central paralysis down from the lesion site, and on the opposite side - loss of superficial sensitivity - pain, temperature and partially tactile (Brown-Secar syndrome).

The defeat of the entire diameter of the spinal cord causes loss of all types of sensitivity below the level of damage, bilateral central paralysis and impaired urination.

The defeat of the sensory pathways in the area of ​​the brain stem causes the loss of all types of hemi-type sensitivities on the opposite side and hemataxia.

The defeat of the visual tubercle (subcortical center of all types of sensitivity) causes the loss of all types of sensitivity on the opposite side, hemataxia, as well as the same half loss of visual fields.

In addition, with damage to the optic tubercle, special pain occurs in the opposite half of the body: they are characterized by a painful and extremely unpleasant burning sensation or cold and are difficult to localize to the patient.
These pains are called thalamic.

The defeat of the posterior central gyrus of the cerebral cortex, which is the cortical center of the sensitive analyzer, causes hemianesthesia and hemataxia on the side opposite to the focus. In the case of limited lesions of the posterior central gyrus, monoanesthesia (arms, legs, face areas) are observed on the opposite side.

Trigeminal Syndromes

With irritation of the trigeminal nerve (one or another of its branches), very strong pains arise that radiate to all branches of the nerve. They are expressed in the forehead, scalp, eye, ear, cheek, lower jaw, and gives to the teeth. To determine the localization of the main lesion, a pain point is identified in the places where the nerve branches exit.

Damage to the trigeminal nerve node and sensory root of the trigeminal nerve causes a violation of sensitivity in the innervation zone of all nerve branches, as well as rashes of bubbles on the face along separate nerve trunks.

The defeat of one of the branches of the trigeminal nerve leads to a violation of all types of sensitivity innervated by this branch, to the appearance of pain and to the extinction of the corresponding reflexes (in case of damage to the ocular branch, the superciliary, corneal and conjunctival reflexes disappear; in case of damage to the mandibular branch, the mandibular reflex).
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Syndromes of impaired sensory and sensory functions

  1. SENSITIVITY SYNDROMES AND SENSITIVITY FUNCTIONS
    Three main types of sensitivity disorders are distinguished depending on the distribution borders: peripheral - in the area of ​​nerve innervation, segmental - in the area of ​​innervation of the segment of the spinal cord, posterior (sensitive) root or intervertebral ganglion, conductor - below the level of damage to the conductors of sensitivity in the spinal cord or brain. Depending on the level of lesions
  2. Sensitivity and types of sensory impairment
    Sensitivity is the body's ability to perceive irritations emanating from the environment or from its own tissues and organs. The analyzer consists of three departments: the receptor, the conductor, and the cortical. Receptors are the terminal formations of sensitive nerve fibers that perceive changes in the body or outside it and transmit it in the form of impulses.
  3. Syndromes of Violations of Higher Cortical Functions
    Gnosis (agnosia) disorders Gnosis (Greek gnosis - knowledge) is a complex set of analytical and synthetic processes aimed at recognizing an object as a whole and its individual characteristics. Gnosis disorders are called agnosia. In accordance with the types of human senses, visual, auditory, tactile (somatosensory), olfactory, taste agnosias are distinguished. Self
  4. Syndromes of Violations of Higher Cortical Functions
    Violations of spatial representations. The perception of space (spatial gnosis) is considered as the result of the joint activity of various analyzers, among which the motor-kinesthetic is of particular importance. In children with cerebral palsy, there is an underdevelopment of spatial gnosis, which is associated with underdevelopment or damage to the parietal lobe of large
  5. VIOLATION OF FUNCTIONS OF BODIES AND SYSTEMS
    BREACH OF FUNCTIONS OF AUTHORITIES AND
  6. SENSITIVITY VIOLATION
    Pain syndrome occurred in 87 patients (100%). Local soreness in the area of ​​trauma and pain symptoms accompanying spastic convulsive events were noted in 87 patients (100%); phantom pains - in 13 patients (14.9%); radicular pain - in 87 patients (100%); causalgia was observed in 17 patients (19.5%). In addition to pain, a violation of all types of sensitivity was observed below
  7. SENSITIVITY VIOLATION
    In the clinic, it is customary to distinguish between types and types of sensitive disorders. The following types of sensory disturbances exist, which are distinguished depending on a qualitative or quantitative change in sensations. Anesthesia - the complete loss of any kind of sensitivity - is due to the fact that, due to some obstacles, the pulses do not reach the corresponding cortical paths
  8. Sensitivity and its disorders
    Sensitivity is the body's ability to perceive irritations emanating from the environment or from its own tissues and organs. Teaching I.P. Pavlova on analyzers laid the foundation for a natural understanding of the nature and mechanisms of sensitivity. Each analyzer consists of a peripheral (receptor) department, a conductor part and a cortical department. Receptors - Special
  9. Prevention and treatment of perinatal lesions of the central nervous system and sensory organs
    The list of diagnostic measures aimed at early detection of perinatal lesions of the central nervous system and sensory organs in children with ENMT is presented in table. 41-7. Table 41-7. Screening studies recommended for newborns with ENMT for detecting perinatal pathology of the central nervous system and sensory organs Indications Recommended studies All newborns Subependimal ventricular hemorrhage
  10. BASIC NEUROLOGICAL SYNDROMES MOTOR VIOLATIONS SYNDROMES
    of the brain, the pyramidal pathway, motor cells of the spinal cord, anterior root, peripheral nerve) the impulse conduction becomes impossible, and the corresponding muscles can no longer participate in the movement - it is paralyzed. Thus, paralysis, or plegia, is the lack of movement in a muscle or muscle group as a result of a break in motor reflex
  11. Brain functions and possible violations of these functions
    Higher brain functions include speech, gnosis and praxis. The speech function is closely related to the functions of writing and reading. Several analyzers, such as visual, auditory, motor, and kinesthetic, take part in their implementation. For proper performance of the function of speech, it is necessary to preserve the innervation of the muscles, primarily the tongue, larynx, soft palate. Also significant
  12. Dysfunction of the nervous system caused by a hereditary metabolic disorder
    Disorders of the nervous system during congenital metabolic disorders arise as a result of the influence of several factors: • direct damage to nerve cells due to insufficiency of any enzyme; • accumulation of certain unsplit metabolic products in the outside of the cell fluid; • damage to other organs (eg, liver); • damage to cerebral vessels.
  13. I had a lover for a short time, and I feel guilty for not renewing the conjugal relationship with his wife. I feel guilty for everything that was destroyed. How can I free myself from this guilt?
    The relationship between your former lover and his wife does not concern you in any way. What happens between them has nothing to do with you. But, based on your scale of values, you tell yourself that it is not good to have a relationship with a married man. You must choose one of two things: either make sure that this does not happen again, because you feel guilty, or change your
  14. Consciousness Syndromes
    A working clinical definition of consciousness as a mental process that allows you to navigate in the world (news and time) and in your own personality, lead G.K. Kaplan and B.J. Sedok (1994). The classic of German psychiatry and the famous existential philosopher Karl Jaspers (1883-1969) as early as 1911. summarized the main signs (criteria) of impaired consciousness inherent in all options
  15. Function of organs and systems
    Fever is accompanied by a change in the functions of many organs, including the central nervous system, immune, cardiovascular, respiratory, digestive and other systems. In most cases, these changes are also due to the direct effect on the cells of the corresponding organs of cytokines that mediate the response of the acute phase. However, some forms of impaired function should be considered a direct result of increased
  16. Laboratory diagnostics in assessing the functions of systems and organs
    Acute endotoxemia is accompanied by activation of functional systems and compensatory mechanisms aimed at detoxification of the body, neutralization of endotoxins. The system copes with the load presented or not - depends on the amount of endotoxin formed, its rate of neutralization and elimination. When an organ by virtue of a functional or functional morphological
  17. SYNDROMES AND RESPIRATORY DISEASES REQUIRING EMERGENCY ASSISTANCE
    SYNDROMES AND RESPIRATORY DISEASES REQUIRING AN EMERGENCY
  18. Intestinal dysfunction
    Bowel functions can be impaired due to many organic diseases and lead to serious changes in the functions of various organs and systems. In some cases, these disorders result from a disorder of the nervous regulation of motility of the small and large intestines and then have a fairly favorable
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