about the project
Medical news
For authors
Licensed books on medicine
<< Previous Next >>

The severity of traumatic disorders (concussion, bruising, compression). Symptoms of an acute period. First aid for head injury.

TBI - mechanical damage to the skull or intracranial formations with impaired functional unity and morphological integrity of the brain.

Open TBI - with damage to the bones of the skull, aponeurosis (connective tissue, hair grows on the cat) and scalp.

Closed head injury - no damage to the bones of the skull and its soft tissues.

Signs of TBI:

? Loss of consciousness

? Bloody nose

? Visual damage to the soft tissues of the head

? Tense neck

To closed TBI rel. (by severity):

1. Concussion (confusion) - mild severity of head injury

2. A bruise of the GM - cf. severity of head injury

3. Compression - heavy.

To open TBI include:

1. Penetrating TBI (injuries in which cat bones of the skull are damaged)

2. Non-penetrating head injury (only skin is damaged, without damage to the bones of the skull)

GM concussion

70% of all head injury

It is characterized by:

Violation of the functional (not morphological!) Brain unity =>


? Goal pain after injury

? Short-term loss of consciousness up to several minutes (up to 5)

? Nausea, vomiting

GM bruise


1. Light degree - the duration of loss of consciousness increases (from 5 minutes to several tens of minutes). Characteristic functional impairment combined with morphological (brain damage)

2. Medium - unconsciousness up to several hours

3. Severe - loss of consciousness up to several days (precomatous conditions are possible). Characteristic:

? Goal pain

? Nausea, vomiting,

? Depending on the location of the injury:

Frontal lobe: - loss of simple movements (paralysis)

- mood changes

- Inability to focus on the task

- Change of personality

The upper part of the head: - inability to remember the name of the object (mnestic aphasia)

- Inability to find words for writing (agraphy)

- Nar.Reading

- Difficulties with applying objects to paper (drawing)

Cerebellum and base of the skull: - impaired coordination of movement

- Nar.thin coordination (tremor of fingers)

- loss of walking ability

- Feeling of trembling earth

- Dizziness

GM compression is a morphofunctional violation of GM tissues, in which their destructive changes occur.


? Violation of the light gap

? Anisocoria

? Exotropia

? Nar.rhythm of the heart

? The development of seizures

? Loss of consciousness

Clinical minimum examination for suspected TBI

1. X-ray of the skull

2. Rheo-encephalography (examination of brain vessels) does blood flow

3. Tomography (may be required)


? Call an ambulance

? Patient on his side

? Apply cold to the head (in place of the bruise).
Vessels narrow - this helps prevent hemorrhages


? Therapeutic and protective regimen (minimum of light, sound, information)

? Sedatives (valerian and others)

? For 2 weeks you can not strain your eyesight

? Vasoconstrictor drugs (ascorutin)

? Painkillers and brain metabolism enhancers (for concussion)

? Surgical treatment (removal of hematomas)
<< Previous Next >>
= Skip to textbook content =

The severity of traumatic disorders (concussion, bruising, compression). Symptoms of an acute period. First aid for head injury.

  1. Traumatic shock, its causes, stages, degrees and first aid
    Shock is a critical condition of the body caused by a damaging factor of extreme strength and manifested by severe violations of the functions of all organs and systems, which are based on insufficient blood supply to tissues and a disorder of the central nervous system. The cause of the shock can be severe trauma (traumatic shock), loss of large volumes of fluid, plasma, blood
  2. First aid for prolonged compression syndrome
    Compression syndrome or traumatic toxicosis is a disease that occurs as a result of prolonged, and sometimes short-term, extensive compression of one or more large limb segments with a pronounced mass (lower leg, thigh, gluteal region). Compression of the extremities occurs in a peaceful and military environment during crashes, car crashes, train crashes, earthquakes,
  3. Diagnosis of traumatic shock and other manifestations of the acute period of traumatic disease
    As general clinical signs of traumatic shock, it is necessary to highlight: pallor of the skin, impaired consciousness from moderate inhibition to stupor, a decrease in systolic blood pressure, impaired external respiration of varying severity. The severity of traumatic shock is shown in Table 29.1. Table 29.1 Classification of traumatic shock by degree
  4. Clinic for acute, intermediate and separated periods of head injury
    The acute period - from the moment of injury to stabilization at various levels of functions impaired due to injury (from 2 to 10 weeks, depending on the clinical form and severity of the head injury); the intermediate period - from the moment of stabilization of functions to their full or partial recovery or sustained compensation (with mild TBI - up to two months, with moderate - up to four months, with severe - up to six
  5. First aid for traumatic shock
    Any trauma causes not only local tissue damage in the area of ​​the impact of the trauma, but also a general response of the human body, which manifests itself in the form of traumatic shock. Shock is a protective reaction of the body aimed at its survival. Traumatic shock is a general reaction of the body to pain and blood loss during massive trauma and intoxication. Mainly manifested
  6. SESSION 10 First aid in acute poisoning. The concept of "food poisoning". First aid for vomiting, hiccups, diarrhea, constipation. Clinic of botulism.
    Purpose: To teach students the diagnosis and first aid for acute poisoning. Describe the essential drugs used in the provision of emergency care for poisoning. Test questions 1. What is called poisoning, what kind of poisoning happens, what usually causes poisoning? 2. Types of predominant action of substances. What substances are of these types? 3. Rules
    In the previous lecture, we examined the methods of first aid in emergency conditions due to various injuries, in this - due to diseases or functional disorders. Such emergency conditions include: directly life-threatening pathological conditions; pathological conditions that currently do not threaten life, but the lack of timely
  8. LESSON 8 First-aid treatment for pain: pain in the abdomen, in the lumbar region. Diagnosis of the syndrome of "acute abdomen."
    Objective: To teach students to identify the symptoms of "acute abdomen" and provide first aid to such patients. To acquaint students with the main diseases in emergency surgical practice, which are accompanied by the development of the acute stomach syndrome. Test questions 1. What is characteristic of acute surgical diseases of the abdominal organs? What groups are they divided into? What do they understand
  9. SESSION 7 The first pre-medical care for pain. Chest pains. Diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction. Headache. Toothache.
    Objective: To study the pathophysiology of pain and the general principles of analgesia. To teach students to identify symptoms of acute myocardial infarction, angina pectoris and provide first aid in these conditions. Test questions 1. Prepare for the final test on topics 4-6. 2. Pathogenesis of pain. 3. What diseases can lead to headaches? 4. What diseases
  10. Burns. Types, degrees of burns, first aid.
    Burns in children are often found as traumatic injuries of soft tissues and most often occur as a result of child neglect or improper organization of their leisure time. The greatest number of burns is formed from the action of hot liquids, more often in children ml of air. The depth of skin lesion is divided into the following degrees: I degree - hyperemia of the skin, II degree - detachment of the epidermis with preservation
  11. Frostbite. Causes. Degrees. First aid.
    Frostbite occurs from the action of cold air. This can be facilitated by wind, wet shoes and clothes, tight shoes. Frostbites are, as a rule, fingertips, nose, ears, cheeks. Degrees: 1-characterized by blanching of the skin and loss of sensitivity. 2- there is a deeper lesion of blood circulation with subsequent formation of blisters. 3- death occurs
  12. LESSON 5 First aid after heat, sunstroke, fainting, collapse. Principles of assisting in the violation of cerebral circulation.
    Purpose: To teach students how to help victims of accidents caused by environmental influences (heat stroke, sunstroke), in cases of cerebrovascular accident and decreased vascular tone. Test questions 1. Heat stroke (pathogenesis, first aid). 2. Sunstroke (pathogenesis, first aid). What are the features of first aid (unlike
  13. Symptoms and emergency care for various poisonings
    This section presents data on the most frequent poisonings in children, indicating the symptoms that occur when poisoning with a particular toxic substance, and also lists emergency measures, which include: • methods of detoxification; • antidote treatment; • symptomatic therapy. For ease of use, all data is tabulated; toxic substances
    Concussion occurs with severe headaches. Signs: - loss of consciousness (from several seconds to several hours); - nausea, vomiting, dizziness; - headache, pallor, increased heart rate; - memory impairment. First aid: lay the victim, ensure peace. The patient requires observation, radio consultation is carried out. With bruises of the brain to
  15. LESSON 13 First aid for injuries. Closed soft tissue damage. Traumatic brain injuries. Damage to the chest. Transport immobilization for injuries.
    Purpose: To teach students the differentiological diagnosis of various traumatic conditions, the rules of first aid to the victim. Test questions 1. Injury. Definition Classification of injuries. 2. Closed soft tissue damage. Injury. First aid. 3. Stretching. Complaints First aid. 4. The gap. Complaints First aid. 5. The syndrome of prolonged crushing. Pathogenesis. The clinical picture.
Medical portal "MedguideBook" © 2014-2019