the main
about the project
Medicine news
To authors
Licensed books on medicine
<< Ahead Next >>

The severity of traumatic disorders (concussion, bruise, compression). Symptoms of the acute period. First aid for TBI.

TBI - mechanical damage to the skull or intracranial formations in violation of the functional unity and morphological integrity of the brain.

Open CCT - with the defeat of the bones of the skull, aponeuroses (connection of tissues, on the cat. Hair grows) and the skin of the head.

Closed CCT - no damage to the bones of the skull and its soft tissues.



Signs of TBI:

? Loss of consciousness

? Bloody nasal discharge

? Visual damage to the soft tissues of the head

? Tense neck



To closed CCT (by severity):

1. Concussion GM (confusion) - mild severity of TBI

2. GM injury - cf. severity of TBI

3. Compression - heavy.



To open head trail refer:

1. Penetrating TBI (injuries caused by bones of the skull are damaged)

2. Non-penetrating head injury (only skin is damaged, without damage to the bones of the skull)



GM shake

Makes 70% of all TBI

Characterized by:

Violation of the functional (not morphological!) Unity of the brain =>

Clinic:

? Goal pain after injury

? Short-term loss of consciousness up to several minutes (up to 5)

? Nausea, vomiting



GM injury

Degrees:

1. Mild - the duration of loss of consciousness increases (from 5 minutes to several tens of minutes). Characteristic functional impairment combined with morphological (brain damage)

2. Medium degree - loss of consciousness up to several hours.

3. Severe - loss of consciousness up to several days (precomatose states are possible). Characteristically:

? Goal

? Nausea, vomiting,

? Depending on the location of the injury:

Frontal lobe: - loss of simple movements (paralysis)

- Mood changes

- Inability to focus on the task

- Personality change



Upper part of the head: - inability to remember the name of the object (mnestic aphasia)

- Inability to find words to write (agraphia)

- Nar.readings

- Difficulties with drawing objects on paper (drawing)



Cerebellum and skull base: - impaired coordination of movement

- Nar.n. coordination (tremor of the fingers)

- Loss of ability to walk

- Feeling the earth trembling

- Dizziness

GM compression is a morphofunctional disorder of GM tissues, at which their destructive changes occur.

Clinic:

? Disturbance of the light gap

? Anisocoria

? Exotropia

? Nar.rhythm of the heart

? The development of seizures

? Loss of consciousness



Clinical minimum examination for suspected head injury

1. X-ray of the skull

2. PEO enfephalography (examination of brain vessels) does blood flow out

3. Tomography (may be required)



PMP

? Call an ambulance

? Patient on the side

? Attach a cold to the head (in place of injury).
Vessels constrict to prevent hemorrhage.

Treatment:

? Therapeutic and protective mode (minimum of light, sound, information)

? Sedative drugs (valerian, etc)

? For 2 weeks you can not strain your eyesight

? Vasoconstrictor drugs (askorutin)

? Pain medications and brain metabolism (with concussion) drugs

? Surgical treatment (removal of hematomas)
<< Ahead Next >>
= Go to tutorial content =

The severity of traumatic disorders (concussion, contusion, compression). Symptoms of the acute period. First aid for TBI.

  1. Traumatic shock, its causes, stages, degrees and first aid
    Shock is a critical condition of the body caused by a damaging factor of extraordinary power and manifested by pronounced dysfunction of all organs and systems, based on insufficient blood supply to the tissues and disorder of the central nervous system. The cause of shock can be severe trauma (traumatic shock), loss of large volumes of fluid, plasma, blood.
  2. First aid for crush syndrome
    Crush syndrome or traumatic toxicosis is a disease that occurs as a result of prolonged and sometimes short-term extensive compression of one or more large limb segments that have a pronounced array (lower leg, thigh, buttocks). Limb compressions occur in a peaceful and military situation during collapses, car accidents, train derailments, earthquakes,
  3. Diagnosis of traumatic shock and other manifestations of the acute period of traumatic illness
    As a common clinical signs of traumatic shock, it is necessary to distinguish: pale skin, a disorder of consciousness from moderate lethargy to stupor, a decrease in the level of systolic blood pressure, disturbed external respiration of various severity. The classification of traumatic shock by severity is reflected in tabl.29.1. Table 29.1 Classification of traumatic shock by degree
  4. Clinic acute, intermediate and separated periods of TBI
    The acute period - from the moment of injury to stabilization at different levels of function disturbed by injury (from 2 to 10 weeks depending on the clinical form and severity of TBI); the intermediate period - from the moment of stabilization of functions to their full or partial recovery or stable compensation (with mild TBI - up to two months, with moderate - up to four months, with severe - up to six
  5. First aid for traumatic shock
    Any injury causes not only local tissue damage in the area of ​​the impact of the injury, but also a general response of the human body, which manifests itself in the form of traumatic shock. Shock is a protective reaction of the body, aimed at its survival. Traumatic shock - the general reaction of the body to pain and blood loss in case of massive injury and intoxication. Mainly manifested
  6. SESSION 10 First aid for acute poisoning. The concept of "food poisoning". First aid for vomiting, hiccups, diarrhea, constipation. Clinic of botulism.
    Objective: To teach students diagnosis and first aid for acute poisoning. To characterize the main drugs used in the provision of emergency assistance for poisoning. Test questions 1. What is called poisoning, what kind of poisoning does it take, what usually causes poisoning? 2. Types of predominant action of substances. What substances belong to these types? 3. Rules
  7. FIRST MEDICAL AID IN CERTAIN CONDITIONS DUE TO DISEASES OR FUNCTIONAL DISORDERS
    In the previous lecture, we examined the methods of first aid in case of emergency due to various injuries, and in this case due to diseases or functional disorders. Such urgent conditions include: life-threatening pathological conditions; pathological conditions that are not life threatening at the moment, but lack of timely
  8. SESSION 8 First pre-medical aid for pain syndrome: abdominal pain, lumbar region. Diagnosis of acute abdomen syndrome.
    Objective: To teach students to identify the symptoms of "acute abdomen" and provide first aid to such patients. To acquaint students with the main diseases in emergency surgical practice, which are accompanied by the development of the syndrome "acute stomach". Test questions 1. What is characteristic of acute surgical diseases of the abdominal organs? What groups are they divided into? What understand
  9. SESSION 7 First aid before pain syndrome. Chest pains. Diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction. Headaches. Toothache.
    Objective: To study the pathophysiology of pain and the general principles of analgesia. Teach students to identify the symptoms of acute myocardial infarction, angina and provide first aid in these conditions. Test questions 1. Prepare for the final test on topics 4-6. 2. Pathogenesis of pain syndrome. 3. What diseases can lead to pain in the head? 4. What diseases
  10. Burns Types, degrees of burns, first aid.
    Burns in children are often found as traumatic injuries of soft tissues and most often arise as a result of the neglect of children or improper organization of their leisure time. The greatest number of burns is formed from the action of hot liquids, more often - in children ml of age. The depth of the skin lesion is divided into the following degrees: Grade I - skin hyperemia, Grade II - epidermis detachment with preservation
  11. Chilblains. The reasons. Degrees. First aid.
    Frostbite comes from the action of cold air. This can contribute to the wind, getting wet shoes and clothes, tight shoes. Frostbite exposed, as a rule, fingertips, nose, ears, cheeks. Degrees: 1-characterized by blanching of the skin and loss of sensitivity. 2- there is a deeper damage to blood circulation, followed by the formation of bubbles. 3- death occurs
  12. SESSION 5 First aid before thermal, sunstroke, fainting, collapse. Principles of assistance in violation of cerebral circulation.
    Objective: To teach students to assist victims in accidents caused by exposure to the environment (heat, sunstroke), in violation of cerebral circulation and reduction of vascular tone. Test questions 1. Heat stroke (pathogenesis, first aid). 2. Sunstroke (pathogenesis, first aid). What are the features of first aid (unlike
  13. Symptoms and emergency care for various poisonings
    This section presents data on the most common poisoning in children, indicating the symptoms that occur when poisoning with a particular toxic substance, and also lists emergency measures, which include: • detoxification methods; • antidote treatment; • symptomatic therapy. For convenience, all data are tabulated; toxic substances
  14. RENDERING FIRST MEDICAL CARE FOR CONTRASTING AND BRAIN INJURY, BREAST CELL DAMAGE, BRAIN INJURY
    Concussion of the brain occurs with severe blows to the head. Signs: - loss of consciousness (from several seconds to several hours); - nausea, vomiting, dizziness; - headache, pallor, increased heart rate; - memory impairment. First aid: put the victim, to ensure peace. The patient requires observation, radio consultation is carried out. With brain contusions to
  15. SESSION 13 First aid for injuries. Closed soft tissue damage. Traumatic brain injury. Chest damage. Transport immobilization for injuries.
    Objective: To teach students how to diagnose various traumatic conditions and how to provide first aid to an injured person. Test questions 1. Trauma. Definition Classification of injuries. 2. Closed soft tissue damage. Injury. First aid. 3. Stretching. Complaints. First aid. 4. The gap. Complaints. First aid. 5. Prolonged crush syndrome. Pathogenesis. Clinical picture.
Medical portal "MedguideBook" © 2014-2016
info@medicine-guidebook.com