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The severity of traumatic disorders (concussion, bruising, compression). Symptoms of an acute period. First aid for head injury.

TBI - mechanical damage to the skull or intracranial formations with impaired functional unity and morphological integrity of the brain.

Open TBI - with damage to the bones of the skull, aponeurosis (connective tissue, hair grows on the cat) and scalp.

Closed head injury - no damage to the bones of the skull and its soft tissues.



Signs of TBI:

? Loss of consciousness

? Bloody nose

? Visual damage to the soft tissues of the head

? Tense neck



To closed TBI rel. (by severity):

1. Concussion (confusion) - mild severity of head injury

2. A bruise of the GM - cf. severity of head injury

3. Compression - heavy.



To open TBI include:

1. Penetrating TBI (injuries in which cat bones of the skull are damaged)

2. Non-penetrating head injury (only skin is damaged, without damage to the bones of the skull)



GM concussion

70% of all head injury

It is characterized by:

Violation of the functional (not morphological!) Brain unity =>

Clinic:

? Goal pain after injury

? Short-term loss of consciousness up to several minutes (up to 5)

? Nausea, vomiting



GM bruise

Degrees:

1. Light degree - the duration of loss of consciousness increases (from 5 minutes to several tens of minutes). Characteristic functional impairment combined with morphological (brain damage)

2. Medium - unconsciousness up to several hours

3. Severe - loss of consciousness up to several days (precomatous conditions are possible). Characteristic:

? Goal pain

? Nausea, vomiting,

? Depending on the location of the injury:

Frontal lobe: - loss of simple movements (paralysis)

- mood changes

- Inability to focus on the task

- Change of personality



The upper part of the head: - inability to remember the name of the object (mnestic aphasia)

- Inability to find words for writing (agraphy)

- Nar.Reading

- Difficulties with applying objects to paper (drawing)



Cerebellum and base of the skull: - impaired coordination of movement

- Nar.thin coordination (tremor of fingers)

- loss of walking ability

- Feeling of trembling earth

- Dizziness

GM compression is a morphofunctional violation of GM tissues, in which their destructive changes occur.

Clinic:

? Violation of the light gap

? Anisocoria

? Exotropia

? Nar.rhythm of the heart

? The development of seizures

? Loss of consciousness



Clinical minimum examination for suspected TBI

1. X-ray of the skull

2. Rheo-encephalography (examination of brain vessels) does blood flow

3. Tomography (may be required)



PMP

? Call an ambulance

? Patient on his side

? Apply cold to the head (in place of the bruise).
Vessels narrow - this helps prevent hemorrhages

Treatment:

? Therapeutic and protective regimen (minimum of light, sound, information)

? Sedatives (valerian and others)

? For 2 weeks you can not strain your eyesight

? Vasoconstrictor drugs (ascorutin)

? Painkillers and brain metabolism enhancers (for concussion)

? Surgical treatment (removal of hematomas)
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The severity of traumatic disorders (concussion, bruising, compression). Symptoms of an acute period. First aid for head injury.

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