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Brain injuries

Closed brain injuries include concussion (commotio cerebri), contusion (contusio cerebri), compression of the brain (compressio cerebri), often caused by fractures of the bones of the arch or base of the skull and traumatic intracranial hemorrhages.

Concussion Clinically, the symptoms of concussion can be divided into three periods: the first is an unconscious state; the second is motor inhibition; the third is neurotic phenomena. The unconscious state lasts, depending on the severity of the injury, from several minutes to several days. The duration of loss of consciousness distinguishes 3 degrees of concussion: 1) mild — cases with short-term impaired consciousness and vomiting; the patient usually recovers quickly; 2) moderate — cases with prolonged loss of consciousness (several hours) and slowing of the pulse; upon the return of consciousness, there is a more or less prolonged retrograde amnesia (patients do not remember the events preceding the injury) .3) severe - is accompanied by a deep and prolonged coma, impaired sphincter, decreased or absent reflexes. In the second period, the patient is lethargic, spontaneous, depressed mood. In the third period, neurotic phenomena are expressed - patients are emotionally unstable, fatigue, decreased performance, poor sleep, memory impairment, severity of vasomotor symptoms are noted laziness (sweating, coldness, lability of cardiac activity).

A bruise, or concussion, of the brain, in contrast to a concussion, in which only cerebral symptoms are noted, is accompanied by focal symptoms. Possible speech disturbances, paresis, loss of sensitivity. Along with cortical disturbances, there may be symptoms indicating damage to the extrapyramidal system.

With lesions in the region of the anterior cranial fossa, bruising in the skin of the eyelids, “glasses,” often occurs, and a number of cranial nerves are also affected.
The facial, vestibule-cochlear and abducent nerves are especially often affected.

Compression of the substance of the brain is caused by bone fragments of the skull, but more often by hematomas formed as a result of intracranial bleeding.

Bleeding with a closed skull injury is divided into epidural, subdural, subarachnoid, intracerebral, or parenchymal, and intraventricular.

Of the greatest importance among these hemorrhages are epidural, subdural and subarachnoid.

Open injuries of the skull are divided into penetrating and non-penetrating.


More often used 40% glucose solution - 20-40 ml intravenously, 10% sodium chloride solution — 10 ml intravenously, 25% magnesium sulfate solution - 10 ml intramuscularly or intravenously, 10% calcium gluconate solution - 10 ml intramuscularly or intravenously. In addition, it is advisable to prescribe mannitol or urea, 0.5-1 g per 1 kg of body weight. A 10% or 20% solution, aseptically prepared before use on an isotonic sodium chloride solution (0.9%) or 5-10% glucose solution, is administered intravenously.

Powerful dehydration is also achieved by the introduction of diuretic drugs (dichlothiazide — hypothiazide, lasix).

If motor anxiety accrues and is not a symptom of compression of the brain, then sedatives are necessary. The most commonly used are derivatives of barbituric acid (phenobarbital 0.1-0.2 mg 1-2 times a day, barbamil 0.1-0.2 mg 1-2 times a day).
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Brain injuries

  1. Brain injuries
    A brain injury occurs when a head is struck or a penetrating wound occurs in which brain function is impaired. The manifestations of a brain injury can be small, moderate, or severe, depending on the severity of the brain injury. Mild manifestations of trauma can consist of a slight change in consciousness, while severe trauma can result in loss of consciousness and
  2. Brain injuries
    Closed brain injuries include concussion (commotio cerebri), contusion (contusio cerebri), compression of the brain (compressio cerebri), often caused by fractures of the bones of the arch or base of the skull and traumatic intracranial hemorrhages. A concussion occurs when an object hits the head, when a head hits a solid object, or when
    Injuries to the nervous system are quite common in peacetime, during the period of hostilities they become widespread. In peacetime, household, transport and industrial injuries are very common. An injury to the nervous system cannot be considered as local damage caused by mechanical stress, it is defined as a general disease of the nervous system.
  4. Intensive care for severe traumatic brain injury. Cerebral edema. Postresuscitation disease
    1. In a healthy adult, the volume of the cerebral fraction of cardiac output is: 1) 1/20 2) 1/10 3) 1/6 4) 1/3 Answers: a) correctly 1; b) correct 2; c) correct 3; d) correct 4. 2. Brain blood flow increases with: 1) Hypoxia 2) Hypercapnia 3) Neuronal activity 4) Adrenaline administration 5) Increase in average blood pressure Answers: a) correctly 1,2,3,5; b) correctly 1,2,3,4; c) correctly
    Concussion occurs with severe headaches. Signs: - loss of consciousness (from several seconds to several hours); - nausea, vomiting, dizziness; - headache, pallor, increased heart rate; - memory impairment. First aid: lay the victim, ensure peace. The patient requires observation, radio consultation is carried out. With bruises of the brain to
  6. Brain. Appearance, weight. Brain departments
    The cephalic brain is part of the central nervous system of the vast majority of the chordates, its cephalic end; in vertebrates is located inside the skull. The brain is a symmetrical structure, like most other parts of the body. At birth, his weight is approximately 0.3 kg, while in an adult he is approx. 1.5 kg When examining the brain, attention is primarily attracted by two large hemispheres,
  7. Abstract. Brain circulation and brain response to hypoxia, 2012
    Introduction Brain Blood circulation of the brain Brain hypoxia Conclusion List
    Patients with brain tumors make up about 4% among patients with organic lesions of the nervous system. Tumors of the brain in frequency occupy fifth place among tumors of other locations, giving way to tumors of the stomach, uterus, lungs and esophagus. Brain tumors are found at any age, but there is some predominance in the puberty and at the age of 45-50
  9. Brain Abscess
    A brain abscess is a capsule-limited accumulation of brain detritus, white blood cells, pus, and bacteria. The main causative agents The etiological cause of brain abscess can be bacteria, fungi, protozoa and helminths. Of the bacterial pathogens, the most common are vermin streptococci (S. anginosus, S. constellatus and S. intermedius), which occur in 70% of cases. IN
    A clinical picture similar to tumors can be observed with solitary tuberculosis, cystic arachnoiditis, syphilitic gum, echinococcosis and cysticercosis, brain abscess and other diseases. The first clinical acquaintance with the patient often does not provide an opportunity for an accurate diagnosis. Therefore, it is customary to denote by the term “intracranial volumetric process” those diseases that subsequently
  11. Brain Shells
    The brain is surrounded by three membranes, which are a continuation of the membranes of the spinal cord (Fig. 117). The dura mater of the brain is simultaneously the periosteum of the inner surface of the bones of the skull, with which it is loosely connected. At the base of the skull, the membrane gives rise to processes that penetrate the crevices and openings of the skull. On the inner surface of the hard shell, several
  12. Brain structure
    The brain consists of two hemispheres, which are separated by a deep groove reaching the corpus callosum. The corpus callosum is a massive layer of nerve fibers that connect both hemispheres of the brain. Each hemisphere of the brain has five lobes: frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal and islet. The surface of the brain is covered with bark,
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