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Types of reflexes and methods for their determination

Reflex is a reaction that occurs in response to irritation of receptors in a reflexogenic zone. Reflexes give an idea of ​​the state of various parts of the human nervous system. The study of reflexes is to determine their nature, uniformity, symmetry. Reflexes can be alive. Hyporeflexia, hyperreflexia (with an expanded reflexogenic zone), areflexia (lack of reflexes) may be noted. Reflexes are divided into deep, or proprioceptive (tendon, periosteal, articular), and superficial (skin, from the mucous membranes).

Deep reflexes occur with percussion with a hammer along the tendon or periosteum. As a result, a motor reaction of the corresponding muscle groups is observed. The following reflexes are normally determined on the upper extremities: reflex from the tendon of the biceps of the shoulder muscle, from the tendon of the biceps of the shoulder muscle and the carporadial reflex.

Skin reflexes occur with dashed irritation of a certain skin area with the handle of a neurological hammer. The abdominal reflexes are distinguished: upper (occurs when the skin of the abdomen is irritated along the lower edge of the costal arch), middle (occurs when the skin of the abdomen is irritated at the navel) and lower (occurs when the skin is irritated parallel to the inguinal fold). These reflexes consist in the reduction of abdominal muscles at an appropriate level and the deviation of the navel towards irritation. The following extensor pathological reflexes on the lower extremities are distinguished: the Babinsky reflex (extension of the first toe as a result of line irritation of the skin of the outer edge of the sole, up to 2–2.5 years old is physiological), the Oppen game reflex (extension of the first toe when fingers are held along the crest tibia downward toward the ankle joint), Gordon's reflex (slow extension of the first toe and fan-shaped discrepancy of the other fingers as a result of compression of the calf muscles), Schaefer's reflex (unbent I of the toe as a result of compression of the Achilles tendon).


The following flexion pathological reflexes on the lower extremities are distinguished: Rossolimo reflex (flexion of the toes of the feet with a quick hit with a hammer on the fingertips), ankylosing spondylitis - Mendel (flexion of the toes of the feet when the hammer hits the back of its surface), Zhukovsky's reflex (flexion of the toes of the foot with a hammer on its plantar surface under the fingers), ankylosing spondylitis (flexion of the toes when the hammer hits the plantar surface of the heel).

Flexion pathological reflexes on the upper extremities can be such as the Tremner reflex (flexion of the fingers with rapid tangential irritation of the palmar surface of the terminal phalanges of the II – IV fingers), Jacobson-Lask reflex (combined flexion of the forearm and fingers when the hammer hits the styloid process of the radius ), Zhukovsky’s reflex (flexion of the fingers when a hammer hits the palmar surface), ankylosing spondylitis, ankylosing spondylitis (flexion of the fingers as a result of percussion with the hammer of the rear of the cysts patient). With an increase in tendon reflexes, clonuses appear. They consist of a series of rapid rhythmic contractions of a muscle or group of muscles when they are stretched.
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Types of reflexes and methods for their determination

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