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Higher cortical functions and their violations

In the bark g. M. All the information comes from the external and internal environment, where it is compared with the needs, past experience and is transformed into teams covering all life processes. Different areas of the cortex are associated with receptors and form the cortical parts of the analyzers. Violations. Agnosia - frustration, impossibility of knowledge in the field of one analyzer. There are visual, auditory, tactile, olfactory, gustatory and speech. Apraxia - movement disorders without paralysis. Allocate motor, visual-spatial and kinesthetic. Aphasia - speech disorders due to the defeat of the cortical speech zones in the dominant hemisphere.
Distinguish motor - the skill of pronunciation is lost, and sensory - the patient hears, but does not understand speech. Alalia is a systemic underdevelopment of speech, it occurs when a brain is damaged before a child masters speech. They distinguish motor impairment of motor speech, and sensory lack of understanding of speech in case of elementary hearing. Dysarthria - violation of sound pronunciation. Disgraphia - violation of the letter, dyslexia - reading. Tachilalia - acceleration of the rhythm of speech. Bradilalia - slow speech.
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Higher cortical functions and their violations

  1. HIGH CORTEX FUNCTIONS
    The cerebral cortex is essentially a gigantic intermediate center on the path from receptor apparatus to effector. All information coming from the external and internal environment flows here, it is compared with current needs, past experience and converted into teams, often covering all life processes. It develops fundamentally new solutions, and
  2. Higher mental functions and their disorders
    A person’s unique ability to speak and think, subject perception (gnosis) and actions with objects (praxis), as well as their disorders in focal brain lesions have always been in the field of vision of neurologists. As the structural and functional ideas about the brain, the laws of nervous activity, the biological social nature of man, the laws of the human psyche, language improve
  3. SYNDROMES OF HIGHER CORK FUNCTION DISTURBANCES
    Disorders of gnosis (agnosia) Gnosis (Greek gnosis - knowledge) is a complex set of analytical-synthetic processes aimed at recognizing an object as a whole and its individual characteristics. Disorders of gnosis are called agnosias. In accordance with the types of human senses, there are visual, auditory, tactile (somatosensory), olfactory, gustatory agnosia. Self
  4. SYNDROMES OF HIGHER CORK FUNCTION DISTURBANCES
    Violations of spatial representations. The perception of space (spatial gnosis) is considered as the result of the joint activity of various analyzers, among which motor-kinesthetic is of particular importance. In children with cerebral palsy, there is an underdevelopment of spatial gnosis, which is associated with underdevelopment or damage to the parietal lobe of large
  5. STUDY OF HIGHER CORK FUNCTIONS
    Methods for the study of higher cortical functions are described in detail in the relevant courses (psychology, childhood psychopathology). We will only point out that in the study of the neuro-logical status, gnosis, praxis, speech, memory, thinking are investigated. The necessary information about the mental state of children is obtained during the observation of their mimicry, manner of play, behavior in the new environment, etc.
  6. Brain functions and possible disorders of these functions
    The higher brain functions include speech, gnosis and praxis. Speech function is closely related to the functions of writing and reading. Several analyzers take part in their implementation, such as visual, auditory, motor and kinesthetic. For proper performance of the function of speech, the preservation of the innervation of the muscles is necessary, primarily the tongue, larynx, and soft palate. Also significant
  7. Dysfunction of the nervous system caused by hereditary metabolic disorders
    Disorders of the nervous system in congenital metabolic disorders result from the influence of several factors: • direct damage to nerve cells due to the lack of any enzyme; • accumulation of certain undigested metabolic products outside the cellular fluid; • damage to other organs (eg, liver); • damage to cerebral vessels.
  8. FUNCTION DISORDER. PAIN
    CAUSE-AND-INVESTIGATION CONNECTION In accordance with the conditioned reflex teaching of I.P. Pavlov (15) and the theory of functional systems P.K. Anokhin (2,19), the function arises in response to exposure to environmental factors. Traumatic environmental factors cause pain impulses in nociceptive fibers. (23). Considering that the compression of nerve fibers can be not only in the reception area, but also in any
  9. Bowel dysfunction
    The functions of the intestine can be impaired due to many organic diseases and lead to serious changes in the functions of various organs and systems. In some cases, these disorders occur as a result of disorders of the nervous regulation of the motility of the small and large intestine and then have a rather favorable
  10. Tubular dysfunction
    Isolation of disorders associated with dysfunction of the tubules is conditional, since in functional terms the tubular system of the kidneys is closely related to the glomeruli, and pathological disorders often follow the dysfunction of the nephron as a whole, but some indicators can be regarded as the result of preferential dysfunction of the tubules. These disorders include
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