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MENTAL PSYCHOTIC CONDITIONS
These conditions occur, as a rule, against the background of pronounced manifestations of the underlying disease or intoxication.
Delirium disorders in patients are usually short-term, not of a developed nature. Children become poorly contacted, feel fear, deceptions of perception arise, more often in the form of visual illusions (in young children). In children older than 9-10 years old, visual hallucinations of a often frightening nature occur. Children “see” the cemetery, burning candles, monsters, etc.
Sometimes short-term auditory hallucinations occur. “Hear” ringing, obscure voices. Patients are sometimes restless to the engine, trying to break out of bed, wards. Delirious episodes are usually short-lived, from 1 to 4 hours, but can be repeated several times, occurring, as a rule, in the evening and night hours. Often, especially in the terminal stage of the disease, delirious episodes become stunned.
Oneiric (dreamlike) states are accompanied by vivid visual and auditory hallucinatory experiences of a fantastic nature. Children “see” and participate in various scenes and situations, while at the same time observing themselves in one or another unusual “role” as if from outside. “Sitting in heaven, they look at themselves in the ward and feel like an angel”, “fly to other countries”, etc.
n. At the same time, patients are inactive, are in bed with a distant expression and a fixed look. Contact with them is superficial, answers to questions are monosyllabic and inconsistent. The emotional state can be different: euphoric, elated, but more often children are anxious, depressed. Oneiric states are also short-term and intermittent, that is, the depth of confusion of consciousness fluctuates. When leaving the onyroid, the children are tearful, exhausted, they have pronounced manifestations of asthenia. With prolonged debilitating oncological disease, amentic states arise in the form of their mild form - asthenic confusion. These states are characterized by pronounced exhaustion, difficulty in contact, inconsistent thinking, unfocused motor excitement, against which short-term delusional and hallucinatory experiences arise. These conditions can last from several hours to several weeks, which sometimes requires a transfer to a psychiatric hospital. Psychotic states with dizziness usually occur in cancer patients with secondary brain damage, which allows them to be classified as exogenous-organic psychoses.
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MENTAL PSYCHOTIC CONDITIONS
Confusion is a disorder of reflection of the real world, manifested by disorientation in place and time, incoherence of thought with subsequent amnesia (in particular, after a seizure). Different degrees of severity: stupor, stupor, coma - require a different volume of emergency psychiatric care with hospitalization of the patient, depending on the degree of violation
- Epilepsy. Etiology. Pathogenesis. Convulsive Giving help. Non-convulsive equivalents of epileptic seizures. Twilight stupefaction. Trances. Ambulance
Epilepsy is one of the most common diseases of the nervous system, which, due to its characteristic features, presents a serious medical and social problem. Among the children’s population, the frequency of epilepsy is 0.75-1%, of which 65% can live almost without attacks, provided that they undergo an appropriate medical examination and receive appropriate treatment.
- Acute psychotic conditions, psychomotor agitation and aggressiveness
Psychomotor agitation is expressed in motor anxiety of varying severity (from fussiness to destructive actions), often accompanied by speech disorders and aggressiveness. Psychomotor agitation and aggressiveness are syndromic manifestations of the underlying mental illness, and therefore do not have their own separate code in ICD-10. The patient is able
- Psychotic conditions associated with trauma or severe physical illness
EMERGENCY ASSISTANCE Therapy is carried out taking into account the mental state and somatic pathology. · Correction of concomitant disorders (relief of convulsive seizures, phenomena of cerebral edema, hemodynamic disorders, etc.). · With psychomotor agitation, tranquilizers (diazepam up to 20–40 mg intramuscularly), antipsychotics: chlorpromazine (chlorpromazine *) or levomepromazine (tizercin *) 25–75 mg
- Acute psychotic conditions (acute psychoses)
DIAGNOSTICS Acute psychotic conditions include conditions characterized by a rapid rate of deployment, variety and variability of psychopathological symptoms, confusion, brightness and saturation of affective disorders. With severe severity of the condition - sudden changes and fluctuations in symptoms, chaotic, unfocused, impulsive actions or behavior
- States of altered consciousness
Consciousness disorders are usually divided into offsets (“quantitative” disorders) and dullness (“qualitative” disorders). ¦ Turning off consciousness of varying severity (stunning, since then, coma) requires a different volume of emergency, including, possibly, psychiatric care with hospitalization of the patient, depending on the degree of violation in a psychiatric hospital or
- The level (state) of consciousness.
A normal child has a meaningful and lively look, is able to respond to external stimuli, including (if he is older) and answer questions, participates in an invitation to contact (contact). The figure shows that the child adequately responds to a medical examination and is calm in the presence of the mother. Disturbed consciousness (drowsiness, confusion or coma) are the most important signs of progressive
- States of altered consciousness
Delirium, not caused by alcohol or other psychoactive substances DIAGNOSTICS An etiologically nonspecific syndrome characterized by: - disorder of consciousness (from stunning to coma) and attention (reduced ability to direct, focus, maintain and switch attention); -global disorder of cognition (distortions of perception, illusion and hallucinations, mostly visual;
- Examination program for patients with altered state of consciousness
An objective study begins with an assessment of the general condition of the child, which is the result of the examination, an assessment of the general appearance of the child, the degree of his activity, the adequacy of his reaction to the examination, position in bed, state of consciousness. When assessing the general condition, the complaints of the child are taken into account. The final conclusion about the condition of the patient is made at the end of an objective examination, however, when describing
- The relationship of structure and function. Problems of function localization. The brain as a dynamic system. Mechanisms of systemic integrative activity of the brain. Consciousness, psyche, brain. Unconsciousness
1. The relationship of structure and function in normal and pathological conditions. Problems of function localization. In the neurological sciences, writes academician N.P. Bekhtereva (1988), there is a kind of contradiction. On the one hand, in the human brain not only a very large number of cells and even more connections between them, but, in addition, populations of nerve cells can participate in providing not one but many
- Twilight Consciousness
Twilight consciousness disorder - a sudden and short-term loss of clarity of consciousness with complete detachment from the outside world, or with fragmentary and distorted perception of it while maintaining the usual automated actions, which has a paroxysmal nature of occurrence and termination. Etiology and PATHOGENESIS. Twilight state (confusion) of consciousness can be equivalent to epileptic
Are you awake or sleeping reading these words? This question is unlikely to confuse anyone. Everyone knows the difference between a normal waking state and a feeling of sleep. We are also familiar with other states of consciousness, including those caused by alcohol and marijuana. The content of consciousness in a person is easily subject to change. Right now your focus is on the book, and in a few minutes you
- Consciousness Syndromes
A working clinical definition of consciousness as a mental process that allows you to navigate in the world (news and time) and in your own personality, lead G.K. Kaplan and B.J. Sedok (1994). The classic of German psychiatry and the famous existentialist philosopher Karl Jaspers (1883-1969) as early as 1911. summarized the main signs (criteria) of impaired consciousness inherent in all options
- Confusion and delirium
Confusion is a condition in which the patient is not able to think with ordinary speed and clarity. Depends on many factors, it can be one of the stages in the development of stupor and coma or exit from these conditions. With the development of the process, contact with the patient is becoming more difficult. The patient answers monosyllabic questions, sometimes with persistent repetition, or does not answer. Delirium is
- The Confusion of Consciousness and Delirium
Confusion is a condition in which the patient is not able to think with ordinary speed and clarity. Depends on many factors, it can be one of the stages in the development of stupor and coma or exit from these conditions. With the development of the process, contact with the patient is becoming more difficult. The patient answers monosyllabic questions, sometimes with persistent repetition, or does not answer. Delirium -