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Allergens. Etiology of allergic diseases


Allergens are substances that cause sensitization of the body and allergic reactions. The allergenic properties of substances depend on the structure of the allergen, its dose, the route of penetration into the body, the hereditary predisposition and the state of the physiological systems of the body.
There are many allergens in nature. They are diverse in composition and properties. Allergens in the first place can be foreign proteins and complex complexes containing proteins, lipids, mucopolysaccharides of animal or vegetable origin, as well as non-protein compounds and some low molecular weight substances, such as iodine. Low molecular weight allergens (chemical, medicinal) are haptens and acquire allergenic properties after interaction with tissue proteins.
Allergens that enter the body mainly from the environment are called exoallergens, and allergens that form in the body and are intrinsic but modified proteins of the body are called endoallergens, or autoallergens.
Kexzoallergens include non-infectious and infectious allergens. Among the exogenous non-infectious allergens, the following groups are identified:
1) pollen allergens: pollen of trees (birch, aspen, hazel, etc.), weed grasses (ragweed, dandelion, wormwood, etc.), meadow grasses (hedgehog, timothy grass, ryegrass, etc.), cereals (rye, corn , sunflower, etc.);
2) epidermal allergens: dandruff and hair of cats, dogs, cows, horses and other animals, as well as feathers, fluff and, in some cases, excrement of poultry;
3) household allergens: home, hotel, library dust and some of its components (ticks, microorganisms, etc.), cockroaches, washing powders, synthetic products, cosmetics;
4) drug allergens. Almost any drug can be an allergen, with the exception of certain simple chemicals, such as sodium chloride;
5) insect allergens (poison and allergenic substances of the body of bees, wasps, mosquitoes, etc.);
6) food allergens. Any food product can be an allergen and often a pseudo-allergen. Xenobiotics, preservatives, antioxidants are often the last;
7) chemical allergens: low (salts of platinum, nickel, chromium, mercury, dinitrochlorobenzene, etc.) and high molecular weight substances (varnishes, paints, polymers and other natural and artificial chemicals);
8) special groups of non-infectious allergens (dry fish food, some types of industrial allergens, etc.).
Exoallergens enter the body through the respiratory tract (plant pollen, domestic and industrial dust, certain drugs, bacteria, viruses, fungi), the digestive tract (food, drug allergens), the skin and mucous membranes (drugs, cosmetics, detergents, insect allergens , ticks, etc.).
Many drug allergens are injected into the body.
Exogenous infectious allergens include pathogens of various infectious and parasitic diseases, as well as their metabolic products. Recently, allergic reactions caused by opportunistic flora have become increasingly important. Vaccines have certain sensitizing properties; their administration is sometimes accompanied by adverse reactions, among which a significant part is due to allergic mechanisms. Most medicinal substances are haptens and acquire the properties of complete antigens after combining with plasma or tissue proteins.
Autoallergens (endoallergens) are divided into natural and acquired. Allergens of physiologically isolated organs (lens, thyroid gland, testicles, nervous tissue) are referred to natural. With the pathology of these organs, a violation of the barrier and the release of allergens (antigens) occur, which cause the development of autoallergic diseases. Auto allergens can form in other organs and tissues under the influence of various damaging factors: infectious agents (viruses, microbes, toxins, etc.), thermal effects (burns, cooling), ionizing radiation, etc. Allergenic properties in proteins and other macromolecules arise in connection with denaturation processes and the emergence of new determinant groups.
Diagnostic and therapeutic allergens. In the clinic, for the specific diagnosis and treatment of allergic diseases, drugs (allergens) specially prepared under industrial conditions containing substances responsible for the development of allergic reactions are used. For the diagnosis and treatment of allergic diseases caused by non-infectious allergens (pollen, epidermal, etc.), water-salt extracts obtained using Evans-Kokka liquid are widely used as allergens. Allergens are standardized by protein content or biologically standardized by staging skin samples with allergens and known dilutions of histamine.
For diagnostic purposes, allergens are used for staging skin tests by the injection method (pri-test), which are water-salt solutions of allergens containing glycerin as a stabilizer; diagnostic alcetas (metal lancets with a standardized allergen fixed on their sharp ends); allergens for in vitro diagnostic tests (PPN-indicator of neutrophil damage, RAST, ELISA, immunoblotting, etc.).
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Allergens. Etiology of allergic diseases

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