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The mechanisms of respiratory failure in the pathology of the respiratory tract

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The mechanisms of respiratory failure in the pathology of the respiratory tract

  1. Mechanisms for reversible airway obstruction
    Reversible airway obstruction is a major manifestation of bronchial asthma. Actually, bronchial asthma is a syndrome that unites a group of diseases that develop under the influence of allergens, pathogens of respiratory tract infections or irritants (pseudo-allergens) in predisposed people and characterized by bronchial hyperreactivity, reversible by their obstruction
  2. EXAMINATION OF A PATIENT WITH A RESPIRATORY PATHOLOGY
    Eugen Braunwald (Eugen Braunwald) As in other areas of medicine, a carefully assembled, detailed history and physical examination of patients with pathology of the respiratory system - the key to success in making an accurate diagnosis. In addition, an X-ray examination plays a particularly important role in the diagnosis. Since dysfunctions of the respiratory system are often manifested systemic
  3. Respiratory failure compensation mechanisms
    When assessing the severity of DN, it is necessary to take into account not only the depth of hypoxia and (or) hypercapnia, but also the state of the compensatory functions of the body. In this case, one must keep in mind the positive and negative sides of enhanced compensation, clearly understand what efforts are achieved to eliminate or reduce tissue hypoxia and how complete it is. Compensatory mechanisms for HDN and ODN
  4. DIAGNOSTIC METHODS FOR RESPIRATORY DISEASES
    Kenneth M. Moser A wide range of diagnostic methods for respiratory diseases are known. They vary not only in reliability and specificity, but also in discomfort and danger to the patient. In this regard, it is necessary to determine the sequence of diagnostic procedures. You should start with methods whose risk is small, and if necessary, go
  5. Features of intensive care for thermochemical damage to the respiratory tract
    The greatest difficulties in the treatment of burned people occur when combining skin burns with thermo-inhalation damage to the respiratory tract. In such victims, the shock course is sharply aggravated due to the toxic effects of toxic combustion products. It is known that inhalation damage (PI) aggravates a burn injury, affecting the body of the affected person in much the same way as a deep skin burn
  6. Airway inflammation in children with bronchial asthma
    The development of bronchial asthma is based on chronic (allergic) inflammation of the bronchi, closely associated with bronchial hyperreactivity. Inflammation of the bronchi is the main distinguishing feature of bronchial asthma and is characterized by dysplasia and desquamation of the epithelium, an increase in the number of goblet glands, the migration of inflammatory cells and the production of various mediators. Cell composition
  7. Resuscitation and intensive care in acute respiratory failure.
    Lecture 3 ONE is a pathological condition caused by a disorder of gas exchange between the body and the environment. There are many different causes of ARF from banal obstruction of the respiratory tract by a foreign body to the most complex disorders of gas diffusion, ventilation of the alveoli and pulmonary blood flow. At least 6 groups of causes leading to ONE can be distinguished:
  8. Blood gas composition for respiratory failure
    Two main categories of DN are distinguished: • hypoxemic (parenchymal), or type I DN, and • hypercapnic-hypoxemic (ventilation), or type II DN. Hypoxemic (type I) respiratory failure Hypoxemic (parenchymal) respiratory failure is characterized by arterial hypoxemia (Pa02 less than 60 mm Hg), which is usually difficult to correct
  9. Respiratory support for exacerbation of chronic respiratory failure
    The development of acute respiratory failure in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is accompanied by a high mortality rate of up to 40% [Hanson C. W. et al., 1996], which in recent years tends to increase [Ferguson G. T., Cherniack R . M., 1993]. ODN in these patients requires active and sometimes prolonged respiratory therapy. The most common causes of sharp deterioration
  10. PECULIARITIES OF APPLICATION OF RESPIRATORY SUPPORT WITH RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY OF VARIOUS GENESIS
    The method of respiratory support for respiratory failure depends both on the severity of the patient’s condition and on the genesis of the disease or the nature of the injury that caused respiratory failure. Starting ventilation, it should be possible to plan the duration of its implementation (it is clear that with an asthmatic status not complicated by the inflammatory process in the lungs, it will be less than with polyradiculoneuritis).
  11. Airway obstruction
    Airflow can be limited at any level of the tracheobronchial tree. Even in the absence of the main pathology of the lungs, a discrete obstacle, if it is located at the level of the larynx, trachea or main bronchus, disrupts the passage of air flow (obstruction of the upper respiratory tract). Compression of the mediastinum due to fibrosis, granuloma, or tumor can narrow the trachea or main bronchus.
  12. ACUTE RESPIRATORY OBSTRUCTION
    Airway obstruction - impaired patency develops as a result of inflammatory processes (acute laryngotracheobronchitis), swelling and spasm of the glottis, aspiration, trauma. In some cases, this is extremely dangerous, since total airway obstruction and a quick fatal outcome are possible. Obstruction of the upper and lower respiratory tract is characterized by different
  13. Airway management
    Masterly mastery of all the skills required to ensure airway patency is an integral part of the skill of an anesthesiologist. This chapter presents the anatomy of the upper respiratory tract, describes equipment and techniques for ensuring airway patency, and discusses the complications of laryngoscopy, intubation, and ex-tubation. Patient safety is direct
  14. RESPIRATORY TORNES
    Definition Rupture of the airways is called traumatic perforation or rupture of any part of the airways. Etiology Ruptures of the walls of the respiratory tract under the influence of thermal or mechanical energy. Neck hyperextension combined with direct exposure to an unprotected trachea. Penetrating chest wounds. Erosion of the tracheobronchial wall with an ETT cuff.
  15. RESPIRATORY INTUBATION
    INDICATIONS The main indications for endotracheal intubation are: a) the need for respiratory support or the delivery of high concentrations of respirable oxygen; b) protection of the respiratory tract from aspiration; c) removal of secretions accumulating in the airways; d) decrease in resistance in the upper respiratory tract. NEED FOR VENTILATION SUPPORT AND POSITIVE PRESSURE AT THE END
  16. LOWER RESPIRATORY OBSTRUCTION
    Aspiration of liquids (water, blood, gastric juice, etc.) and solid foreign bodies, anaphylactic reactions, and exacerbation of chronic pulmonary diseases accompanied by bronchial obstruction syndrome lead to acute obstruction of the lower respiratory tract (NDP) - trachea and bronchi - (Table 5.2). Vomiting aspiration often occurs in a state of coma, anesthesia, severe intoxication
  17. Effect of anesthesia on airway resistance
    It might be expected that a decrease in FOB caused by anesthesia leads to an increase in airway resistance. However, this, as a rule, does not happen, because inhalation anesthetics, widely used to maintain anesthesia, have bronchodilating properties. Increased airway resistance is often due to retraction of the tongue, laryngospasm, bronchoconstriction,
  18. Upper airway obstruction
    Acute obstruction of the upper respiratory tract due to pathological processes leading to narrowing of the larynx and bronchi is the most common cause of acute respiratory failure, requiring emergency treatment at the prehospital stage in children. The urgency of the situation is associated with early developing decompensation, which, in turn, is due to the narrow respiratory tract of the child, the presence of loose
  19. RESPIRATORY BURN
    Definition A burn of the respiratory tract is a thermal or chemical lesion of the mucous membrane of the respiratory tract from the mouth to the alveoli. Etiology Ignition of ETT during laser surgery. Inhalation of hot gases: the inhaled gases are too hot; there is a direct effect of fire; exposure to smoke or toxic gases.
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