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Violations of the main physiological functions and metabolism

The nervous tissue is most sensitive to oxygen starvation. With the complete cessation of oxygen supply, signs of disturbance in the cerebral cortex are already detected after 2.5-3 minutes. In acute hypoxia, the first disorders (especially clearly manifested in its hypoxic form) are observed on the part of higher nervous activity (euphoria, emotional disorders, changes in handwriting and letter omissions, dulling and loss of self-criticism, which are then replaced by depression, gloominess, poignancy, pugnacity). With the onset of acute hypoxia following the activation of respiration, various rhythm disturbances, irregularity of the amplitude of respiratory movements, and rare, short respiratory excursions gradually weaken until the complete cessation of breathing occur. There is tachycardia, which increases in parallel with the weakening of the activity of the heart, then - the filamentous pulse, atrial fibrillation and ventricles. Systolic pressure gradually decreases. Digestion and kidney function are impaired. Decreases body temperature.

A universal, albeit non-specific sign of hypoxic states, hypoxic damage to cells and tissues - an increase in the passive permeability of biological membranes, their disorganization, which leads to the release of enzymes into interstitial fluid and blood, causing metabolic disorders and secondary hypoxic alteration of tissues.

Changes in carbohydrate and energy metabolism lead to a deficiency of macroergs, a decrease in the content of ATP in cells, increased glycolysis, a decrease in glycogen content in the liver, inhibition of the processes of its resynthesis; as a result, the body increases the content of milk, etc.
organic acids. Metabolic acidosis develops. The lack of oxidative processes leads to disruption of lipid and protein metabolism. The concentration of basic amino acids in the blood decreases, the content of ammonia in the tissues increases, a negative nitrogen balance occurs, hyperketonemia develops, and lipid peroxidation processes are sharply activated.

Disruption of metabolic processes leads to structural and functional changes and cell damage with the subsequent development of hypoxic and free radical necrobiosis, cell death, primarily neurons.
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Violations of the main physiological functions and metabolism

  1. Metabolic disorders and physiological functions during hypoxia
    Disbolism and physiological functions caused by a lack of oxygen supply, progressing with the insufficiency or depletion of compensatory-adaptive reactions. Initially, metabolic disorders manifest themselves in a decrease in the synthesis of high-energy compounds and changes in carbohydrate metabolism. Glycolysis, glycogenolysis are activated, production of pyruvate and lactate increases;
  2. Dysfunction of the nervous system caused by hereditary metabolic disorders
    Disorders of the nervous system in congenital metabolic disorders result from the influence of several factors: • direct damage to nerve cells due to the lack of any enzyme; • accumulation of certain undigested metabolic products outside the cellular fluid; • damage to other organs (eg, liver); • damage to cerebral vessels.
  3. Disorder of sexual function associated with metabolic disorders (nutritional impotence)
    Etiology. Occurs in manufacturing bulls with protein overfeeding (the content in the diet is more than 50% of concentrated feed for the overall nutritional value), lack of carbohydrate in the diet (sugar-protein ratio less than 0.8: 1.0), vitamins (for 1 cu. less than 70 mg of carotene, 1500 IU of vitamin D and less than 40 mg of vitamin E), mineral substances (for 1 ke, calcium is less than 7 grams, phosphorus -
  4. Heart damage in metabolic disorders
    Metabolic disorders in the body always affect the course of metabolic processes in the myocardium, often causing a violation of its function and structure. In various diseases, one or several pathways of metabolism may be initially disturbed, which further necessarily affects the energy supply of the heart muscle. With some metabolic disorders in the interstitial myocardial tissue and in
  5. Special treatment of metabolic disorders
    Metabolic disorders in diabetes, regardless of the various pathogenetic aspects, are based on insulin deficiency. Diet, muscular work and the use of insulin and perorial antidiabetic drugs for more than 20 years are the basis of treatment in each case. Treatment methods Oral diabetes therapy, medications, see table. 25. Insulin: Drugs Used
    A rare disease commonly seen in Siamese and American Shorthair cats. The disease is caused by the absence of one or more key enzymes necessary for the normal functioning of nerve cells, and is inherited in a recessive manner. That is, for the manifestation of the disease in one or more kittens, both parents must be heterozygous for this trait. Get sick
  8. Features of metabolic disorders in the outbreak of inflammation
    The development of alterations, vascular changes in the area of ​​inflammation naturally combined with typical disorders of metabolism. First of all, it should be noted a sharp increase in metabolism at the stage of arterial hyperemia due to increased oxygenation, increased activity of glycolysis enzymes and aerobic oxidation. In the experiment, it was shown that oxygen consumption at the same time increases by
    Symptoms of digestive disorders are most frequent and occur in cats with a decrease or lack of appetite, vomiting, diarrhea or constipation. Most often, the process of digestion is disturbed in kittens when switching from one type of feeding to another, in long-haired cats because of periodically formed trichobezoar (lumps swallowed when licking wool) and in old animals as a result of
    There are the following disorders of fat metabolism: • violation of fat intake from food, their intracavitary digestion, absorption and excretion; • violation of fat transport; • fat accumulation in non-fatty tissue; • Violations of interstitial lipid metabolism; • disorders of fat metabolism in adipose tissue in the form of excessive or insufficient accumulation of it. Described
    I.N. Baklanova In our clinic, a new microelement drug hemovite-plus was tested on the basis of a complex of organic derivative of succinic acid with biologically active trace elements - Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Co, Se, I. The drug is included in the treatment regimen for diseases caused by the disorder metabolism and allergic conditions in dogs and cats. For three years in the clinic was observed over
  12. The main physiological functions of a person in his work activity
    The physiology of labor is part of the general physiology of man. The tasks of the physiology of labor include the study of physiological processes, i.e. conditions and changes in the vital functions of the human body in the course of his work activity, and on the basis of this the development of measures aimed at improving efficiency and improving the health of workers. Work refers to all types.
  13. The main manifestations in the oral cavity of phosphorus-calcium metabolism
    The main mineral components of tooth tissue are calcium and phosphorus. In the regulation of P-Ca metabolism in the body in general, and in particular, the nervous system (central and peripheral, gasper node), thyroid hormones (thyrocalcitonin) and parathyroid glands (parathyroid hormone), salivary glands and the hormone they produce
  14. Pathology of accumulation. Violation of protein, lipid, carbohydrate and mineral metabolism. Violation of nucleic acid metabolism. Hyaline changes. Pathology of chromoproteins.
    1. It results in intracellular accumulations 1. hyperlipidemia 2. insufficient excretion of metabolites 3. accelerated excretion of exogenous substances 4. accelerated excretion of metabolic products 5. impossibility of excretion of exogenous substances 6. acceleration of the formation of natural metabolites 7. accumulation of metabolites due to genetic defects 2. Dystrophy called 1. lethal damage
  15. Pathology of interstitial protein metabolism (disturbance of amino acid metabolism)
    The main ways of interstitial protein metabolism are reactions of transamination, deamination, amidation, decarboxylation, peremetilirovaniya, re-sulfurization. The central place in the interstitial protein metabolism is occupied by the transamination reaction as the main source of the formation of new amino acids. Violation of transamination may occur as a result of deficiency in the body of vitamin Wb.
  16. The main manifestations of endocrine disruption
    Under the normal endocrine function refers to a level of increment, which provides the needs of the organism at any given moment of its existence in specific environmental conditions. Endocrinopathy disorders are called endocrinopathy. The following main types of endocrinopathies are distinguished (Table 1): a) Hyperfunction - an excessively high incretion inadequate to the needs of the organism;
  17. Phytotherapy of metabolic diseases
    Metabolism (metabolism) is the basis of life and is the most important specific sign of living matter, distinguishing living from nonliving. Its essence is the process of continuous entry into the body from the outside of various organic and inorganic compounds, their assimilation, alteration and elimination of the formed decay products into the environment. Metabolism
  18. Evaluation of the functional state of the main body systems and the preoperative correction of impaired functions
    The cardiovascular system. Cardiovascular diseases significantly increase the risk of general anesthesia and surgery, require precise preoperative diagnosis, pathogenetic treatment with the participation of the anesthesiologist and therapist, the correct choice of anesthesia method, careful monitoring and appropriate treatment of these diseases during and after surgery. When interviewing a patient
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