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Neuro-trophic effects and alternative processes in inflammation

According to existing ideas, in the process of alteration in the focus of inflammation, two types of phenomena can be observed, differing in the nature of changes in the nervous regulation of tissue and the value in the activity of cells. As a result of direct and indirect (circulatory disorders, hypoxia, acidosis, enzymatic processes) damage to the receptors of conductors and neurons, as well as their synaptic contacts (pre- and postsynaptic formations), “denervation” is formed, more precisely, a kind of functional and structural isolation of damaged tissue from nerve influences. Although this phenomenon occurs due to tissue damage, it prevents the arrival of intense, including pain, signals from their focus of inflammation and limits the effects of neurotransmitters, intensely released in violation of the integrity of nerve endings. Such changes in the nervous regulation of cells are most characteristic of a zone of pronounced alteration, localized in the center of the focus of inflammation. In the dynamics of inflammation in the peripheral zone, the activity of the nerve apparatus is preserved, they are irritated and various local trophic reflexes, axon reflexes, and reflexes that are closed at different levels of the central nervous system are formed. It is in this zone of reactive tissue changes that the CNS, its various levels, as well as endocrine and other systems, are manifested.
The occurrence of phenomena that are different in their regulation in tissue during inflammation explains the very pronounced differences in the results of studying the effect of denervation on local signs of inflammation.

It is known that in some cases, under the action of a damaging factor on a denervated tissue or organ, alteration is aggravated and prolonged over time, and the proliferative phase, especially along the periphery of the focus of inflammation, becomes weakly expressed. Along with this, many cases are described when, under conditions of denervation under local damaging effects, for example, inflammation of the skin caused by a thermal burn, the manifestations of alteration, as well as vascular exudative changes, are less pronounced than under ordinary conditions. However, the aggravation of the inflammatory process still occurs due to weakening tissue repair, most pronounced on the periphery of the focus of inflammation. It is likely that the nerve effects in the inflammatory tissue are of varying importance at the site of the direct action of the damaging agent and the surrounding area, where various reactions of cells, intercellular substance and microvessels to this damage are formed.
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Neuro-trophic effects and alternative processes in inflammation

  1. Neuro-trophic effects and proliferation in inflammation
    Neuro-trophic influences determine the level of tissue maturity and its ability to renew protein composition, biogenesis of ultrastructures, cell proliferation and intercellular substance. These intra- and extracellular processes are controlled by trophogens, and therefore, with changes in the nerve apparatus in the tissue of the focus of inflammation, certain variations in proliferative phenomena developing in
  2. Neuro-trophic effects and vascular-exudative changes in inflammation
    It can be considered proven that changes in neural influences and neurotrophic function in the focus of inflammation affect microcirculation and take part in the formation of vascular exudative processes. However, the specific mechanisms of these influences are not yet clear. The question is being discussed about what causes a change in the properties of microvessels during inflammation - a violation of their nervous regulation. If you accept that in
  3. Alterative and exudative inflammation
    1. What is alteration: a) the reaction of the microvasculature b) damage to tissues and cells c) proliferation of cells d) increased vascular permeability e) the formation of exudate The correct answer: b 2. What is the type of exudative inflammation: a) mucoid swelling b) interstitial inflammation c a) inflammation of the mucous membranes d) catarrhal inflammation e) turbid swelling Correct answer: g 3.
  4. Modern concepts of neuro-trophic function
    Under the trophic trophic understand the trophic influences of a neuron, which provide normal life activity of the structures innervated by it - other neurons and tissues. Neurotrophic influence - is a special case of trophic interactions between cells and tissues, cells of the same population (neuron - neuron) and different populations (neuron - executive cell). The meaning of cell interaction
  5. Inflammation. Definition, essence, mediators of inflammation. Local and general manifestations of exudative inflammation, morphological manifestations of exudative inflammation. The answer is the acute phase. Ulcerative necrotic reactions with inflammation.
    1. The main processes that develop in the body in response to tissue damage are 1. amyloidosis 2. inflammation 3. regeneration 4. formation of granulomas 5. hyperplasia of cell ultrastructures 2. Inflammation is 1. hyperplasia of cell ultrastructures 2. restoration of lost structures 3 uncontrolled growth of cellular elements 4. exudative-proliferative response to damage 5. cellular
  6. Changes in the central nervous system during aging, degenerative processes and dementia (dementia)
    As a rule, the normal brain mass for adults up to the age of 65 is 1200–1600 g. After 65 years, the brain often decreases due to atrophic processes occurring in it, and the hemispheres somewhat recede from the bones of the skull. With a pathological study, you can see that the membranes of the brain (especially above the parietal zone) are thickened with a milky outflow. In the brain itself
    Inflammation is a biological, and at the same time a key, general pathological process, the appropriateness of which is determined by its protective and adaptive function aimed at eliminating the damaging agent and repairing damaged tissue. In medicine, to indicate inflammation, the term "um" is added to the name of the organ in which the inflammatory process develops - myocarditis, bronchitis,
  8. The effect of the focus of inflammation on the body
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  9. Nutrition for exacerbation of liver inflammation and acute gallbladder inflammation
    Nutrition is recommended for patients with acute cholecystitis and hepatitis, chronic cholecystitis and hepatitis, liver cirrhosis with moderate liver failure, cholelithiasis, as well as with simultaneous damage to the liver and biliary tract, stomach and intestines. Food is cooked in water or steamed, wiped. Excluded foods that enhance fermentation and rotting in
  10. Recommended products for exacerbation of liver inflammation and acute gallbladder inflammation
    Recommended: yesterday’s wheat bread; soups are prepared on a mucous broth with grated cereals, vegetables or on vegetable broths with finely chopped vegetables - potatoes, carrots, zucchini, pumpkin, boiled cereals - rice, semolina, oatmeal, noodles, and egg-milk mixture can be added to soups, which is prepared mix raw eggs with an equal volume of milk, and season
  11. Tasks for the assignment Tasks. 1. True croup: Indicate the clinical and morphological variant of diphtheria in which true croup occurs. Indicate the localization of the process. What is the nature of the pathological process. List its possible complications: a) ..., b) ..., c) ... Standards of solutions. 1. True Croup: Respiratory Diphtheria. B. Larynx Exudative inflammation: fibrinous, croupous. a) asphyxia, b) bronchopneumonia, c) complications of tracheotomy and intubation (bedsores). 2. The first period of scarlet fever

  12. The role of the nervous and endocrine systems in the pathogenesis of inflammation
    The inflammatory reaction of the body appeared at the early stages of evolutionary development and further improved as it became more complicated with the formation and development of the nervous and endocrine systems. Studies show that an inflammatory reaction with the presence of all signs of inflammation is established at 4-5 months of intrauterine life. The effect of the nervous system on the inflammatory process
  13. The effect of the parasympathetic nervous system
    Since in many cases previously described aberrations were observed in combination with a vagus-mediated slowdown of the sinus rhythm, it was also suggested that the prolongation of QRS- is due to the direct depressive effect of acetylcholine on conduction in the His-Purkinje system [222, 223, 229]. However, data on the absence of the inhibitory effect of acetylcholine on the normal His – Purkinje system [25], and
  14. The influence of various factors on the development of the epidemic process
    The epidemic process of respiratory infections is constantly influenced by various social, natural and biological factors of human life. So, in schools and preschool institutions with well-established ventilation and heating facilities, the incidence of acute respiratory infections (ceteris paribus) is always lower than among children living in similar rooms with
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