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General characteristics of anemia. Classification

Anemia (anemia) is a condition characterized by a decrease in the total volume of erythrone, occurring with a decrease in the unit of blood volume of the number of erythrocytes and (or) Hb, often accompanied by their qualitative changes. This is in most cases a syndrome that develops in various diseases, sometimes being the main, central manifestation of the disease.

True anemias are oligocythemic hypo- or normolemias, characterized by a decrease in hematocrit. They should be distinguished from false anemia, related to oligocythemic hypervolemia, which also occur with low hematocrit and are the result of overhydration and hemodilution (dilution of blood).

With anemia, the main function of erythrocytes suffers - the transport of oxygen to the tissues of the body, which causes a disturbance of oxidative processes and the development of hypoxia. Hypoxia most of all affects the functions of the central nervous system and the heart: fatigue, weakness, dizziness quickly occur, memory deteriorates and myocardial dystrophy develops.
The development of hypoxia is affected by the degree of anemia and the speed of its development, as well as the degree and speed of adaptation of the organism to the changed conditions of existence. The latter is achieved by the inclusion of compensatory mechanisms aimed at ensuring the physiological needs of tissues for oxygen. Nervous, cardiovascular, respiratory, hemic and tissue compensatory adaptations are included in the fight against the anemic state.

There are many classifications of anemia based on different principles. The classification according to the pathogenetic principle (Table 3) is widely used.

Table 3

Types of anemia

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General characteristics of anemia. Classification

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