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Gastrointestinal Tumors

In the organs of the gastrointestinal tract (hollow organs, pancreas, liver, biliary tree), various types of tumors are much more common than in other body systems, and such patients have a much higher degree of probability of death. However, there is no single simple explanation for the etiology of tumors of the gastrointestinal tract. International studies have shown great variability in the frequency of occurrence of various types of tumors and their localization in different countries. In the United States, the incidence of cancer of the esophagus, depending on gender and nationality, varies 3-4 times. In Japan, gastric carcinoma in patients is observed almost 10 times more often than in the United States. Cancer of the colon is most common in patients in North America, Western Europe and other highly developed countries, and less commonly in Japan. These significant differences in the risk of cancer do not depend on the nationality of patients and their hereditary predisposition.
If people move from areas with a low risk of developing cancer of a certain localization to areas of high risk, then within two generations the likelihood of developing cancer with them becomes the same as that of the local population. Numerous epidemiological observations have shown the influence of environmental factors on carcinogenesis.

Our knowledge of carcinogenesis is still insufficient. Therefore, when discussing the development of neoplastic processes, it is necessary to consider in detail the mechanisms of the process for each organ. This chapter presents general provisions regarding the differentiation of the epithelium, proliferation, tumor development, and also tumors of the gastrointestinal tract of various localization are separately considered.
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Gastrointestinal Tumors

  1. Gastrointestinal Lymphoma
    In systemic dissemination of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (see chapter 13), any segment of the gastrointestinal tract may be involved again. However, up to 40% of lymphomas develop not in the lymph nodes, but in other organs, among which the intestine is the most frequent localization. By the time of recognition of the primary lymphoma of the gastrointestinal tract, the tumor process does not affect either the liver or
  2. Gastrointestinal bleeding
    Gastrointestinal bleeding is a problem that doctors in the USA often encounter (300 thousand hospitalizations annually). The degree of hemorrhage varies from small slow bleeding to life-threatening conditions that contribute to the development of iron deficiency anemia. Mortality from upper gastrointestinal tract in the USA is 8%. This indicator has not changed much.
  3. Gastrointestinal metabolism
    Liquid and electrolytes are excreted in large quantities with digestive secretions in the gastrointestinal tract, but under normal conditions they are mostly reabsorbed (Fig. 20). Fig. 20. Secretion of water and electrolyte (meq / l of the amount of secretion indicated in the table) (Geigy). Potassium is excreted in the intestines (especially in the large intestine), and it is replaced during the exchange process with sodium (Gooptu with
  4. Gastrointestinal diseases
    Conditions leading to dysphagia Causes: • tumor esophageal stricture; • ???? achalasia; • ???? diffuse spasm of the esophagus; • ???? medicinal esophagitis; • ???? hiatal hernia; • ???? collagenoses; • ???? chemical burn of the esophagus; • ???? diverticulum of the esophagus; • ???? esophageal infections (candidiasis). Features of anesthesia: • preoperative preparation is needed
  5. Gastrointestinal tract
    More than half of pregnant women have an increase in appetite, weight gain can reach 400 g per week, and by the end of pregnancy is 12 kg. Such a change in the regulation of feelings of hunger and satiety provides increased needs of the mother's body for energy and plastic materials. Often there are taste perversions and whims associated with a change in the secretory function of the gastrointestinal tract.
  6. Gastrointestinal tract, kidneys and liver.
    Changes in the gastrointestinal tract during pregnancy are associated mainly with its anatomical displacement by an increasing uterus. The axis of the stomach changes its position from vertical to horizontal, which leads to an increase in intragastric pressure and a change in the angle of connection of the stomach with the esophagus. This in turn leads to relative insufficiency of the esophageal sphincter. If
  7. Gastrointestinal diseases
    ANATOMICAL FEATURES OF THE GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT Features of the gastrointestinal tract determine the specifics of the clinical picture in pathological conditions. The oral cavity in the newborn is poorly developed, the mucous membrane is well vascularized, but relatively dry due to a small amount of saliva. The saliva of the newborn does not play a significant role in digestion, since it practically does not contain enzymes and
  8. STUDY OF GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT BODIES
    SURVEY ALGORITHM {foto29} Fig. 16. Algorithm for examination of the gastrointestinal tract. Examination of the gastrointestinal tract consists of examination, palpation, percussion and auscultation (Fig. 16). From the anamnesis we learn about the nature of food intake, diet, dependence of pain on the time of eating, etc. The main manifestations are bitterness in the mouth, bad breath. Swallowing (free,
  9. Acute and chronic bleeding from the gastrointestinal tract
    There are many causes of gastrointestinal bleeding. Bleeding develops according to one of two primary mechanisms: 1. Violation of the integrity of the mucous membrane, leading to exposure of deep vessels, their erosion. For example, bleeding from a stomach ulcer, bleeding from the intestines during infectious or idiopathic processes, from the small and large intestines during ischemia. 2.
  10. LOSING OF GASTRACTIVE TREATMENT JUICES
    Loss of juice in surgery plays a large role (vomiting, intestinal obstruction, fistula of the gastrointestinal canal, diarrhea, exudation, etc.). In this case, a wide variety of violations occur (Table 18). If a pathological loss of juice occurred before admission to the hospital and targeted treatment, then the violations are eliminated in accordance with the principles set out in the chapter “The therapeutic plan
  11. Gastrointestinal nutrition and cancer
    Cancer of the transverse colon and rectum Many theories have been put forward about the role of nutrition in the development of colon cancer. The human diet includes a large number of substances with mutagenic and carcinogenic properties, as well as antagonists and blockers of these compounds. Therefore, it is very difficult to determine which of them has a damaging effect. Carcinogens that damage the upper sections
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