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Features of the blood supply to the gastrointestinal tract

The main arteries supplying blood to the stomach and intestines are the celiac artery, as well as the upper and lower mesenteric (Fig. 9-1). The celiac artery supplies the stomach, the proximal part of the duodenum, part of the pancreas and liver. The short trunk of the celiac artery is almost immediately divided into the hepatic and splenic arteries. The superior mesenteric artery supplies blood to the part of the pancreas and duodenum, the lean, ileal, and proximal two-thirds of the transverse colon. The inferior mesenteric artery supplies one third of the transverse colon, the rectum, except for its distal section, which is supplied with branches from the internal ileal artery.
Venous outflow from the stomach, from the pancreas, intestines occurs in the portal vein, with the exception of the distal part of the rectum, from which the outflow is carried out into the internal iliac veins. Intestinal vessels form numerous anastomoses, arches, contributing to the formation of collateral circulation. Of these many collaterals, the so-called straight vessels (vasa recti), directly supplying the circular muscles of the intestinal wall, originate.

Fig. 9-1.

Arterial blood supply to the intestines

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Features of the blood supply to the gastrointestinal tract

  1. Functional features of the gastrointestinal tract in newborns
    Digestion of food occurs in the intestinal cavity (cavity digestion), in the parietal mucus and on the membrane of the brush border (membrane digestion). The initial stages of hydrolysis occur in the intestinal cavity under the action of enzymes secreted in the stomach and pancreas, the final stages of hydrolysis under the influence of enzymes of the brush border. In the period of milk nutrition, the membrane dominates
  2. Features of the study of the gastrointestinal tract. Research Methodology.
    The state of the digestive organs is judged by complaints, the results of a survey of the mother, the data of an objective study - the study of the oral cavity, abdomen, rectum, stool and laboratory and instrumental methods. Complaints most often presented by parents for digestive diseases. Abdominal pains Decreased appetite and / or inability to eat (dysphagia) Vomiting and vomiting Diarrhea Constipation
  3. Gastrointestinal bleeding
    Gastrointestinal bleeding is a problem that doctors in the USA often encounter (300 thousand hospitalizations annually). The degree of hemorrhage varies from small slow bleeding to life-threatening conditions that contribute to the development of iron deficiency anemia. Mortality from upper gastrointestinal tract in the USA is 8%. This indicator has not changed much.
  4. Gastrointestinal Lymphoma
    In systemic dissemination of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (see chapter 13), any segment of the gastrointestinal tract may be involved again. However, up to 40% of lymphomas develop not in the lymph nodes, but in other organs, among which the intestine is the most frequent localization. By the time of recognition of the primary lymphoma of the gastrointestinal tract, the tumor process does not affect either the liver or
  5. Gastrointestinal metabolism
    Liquid and electrolytes are excreted in large quantities with digestive secretions in the gastrointestinal tract, but under normal conditions they are mostly reabsorbed (Fig. 20). Fig. 20. Secretion of water and electrolyte (meq / l of the amount of secretion indicated in the table) (Geigy). Potassium is excreted in the intestines (especially in the large intestine), and it is replaced during the exchange process with sodium (Gooptu with
  6. Gastrointestinal Tumors
    In the organs of the gastrointestinal tract (hollow organs, pancreas, liver, biliary tree), various types of tumors are much more common than in other systems of the body, and such patients have a much higher degree of probability of death. However, there is no single simple explanation for the etiology of tumors of the gastrointestinal tract. International studies
  7. Gastrointestinal tract
    More than half of pregnant women have an increase in appetite, weight gain can reach 400 g per week, and by the end of pregnancy is 12 kg. Such a change in the regulation of feelings of hunger and satiety provides increased needs of the mother's body for energy and plastic materials. Often there are taste perversions and whims associated with a change in the secretory function of the gastrointestinal tract.
  8. Gastrointestinal diseases
    Conditions leading to dysphagia Causes: • tumor esophageal stricture; • ???? achalasia; • ???? diffuse spasm of the esophagus; • ???? medicinal esophagitis; • ???? hiatal hernia; • ???? collagenoses; • ???? chemical burn of the esophagus; • ???? diverticulum of the esophagus; • ???? esophageal infections (candidiasis). Features of anesthesia: • preoperative preparation is needed
  9. Gastrointestinal diseases
    ANATOMICAL FEATURES OF THE GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT Features of the gastrointestinal tract determine the specifics of the clinical picture in pathological conditions. The oral cavity in the newborn is poorly developed, the mucous membrane is well vascularized, but relatively dry due to a small amount of saliva. The saliva of the newborn does not play a significant role in digestion, since it practically does not contain enzymes and
  10. Gastrointestinal tract, kidneys and liver.
    Changes in the gastrointestinal tract during pregnancy are associated mainly with its anatomical displacement by an increasing uterus. The axis of the stomach changes its position from vertical to horizontal, which leads to an increase in intragastric pressure and a change in the angle of connection of the stomach with the esophagus. This in turn leads to relative insufficiency of the esophageal sphincter. If
    SURVEY ALGORITHM {foto29} Fig. 16. Algorithm for examination of the gastrointestinal tract. Examination of the gastrointestinal tract consists of examination, palpation, percussion and auscultation (Fig. 16). From the anamnesis we learn about the nature of food intake, diet, the dependence of pain on the time of eating, etc. The main manifestations are bitterness in the mouth, bad breath. Swallowing (free,
  12. Acute and chronic bleeding from the gastrointestinal tract
    There are many causes of gastrointestinal bleeding. Bleeding develops according to one of two primary mechanisms: 1. Violation of the integrity of the mucous membrane, leading to exposure of deep vessels, their erosion. For example, bleeding from a stomach ulcer, bleeding from the intestines during infectious or idiopathic processes, from the small and large intestines during ischemia. 2.
    Loss of juice in surgery plays a large role (vomiting, intestinal obstruction, fistula of the gastrointestinal canal, diarrhea, exudation, etc.). In this case, a wide variety of violations occur (Table 18). If a pathological loss of juice occurred before admission to the hospital and targeted treatment, then the violations are eliminated in accordance with the principles set out in the chapter “The therapeutic plan
  14. Digestion disorders in the gastrointestinal tract
    Protein digestion disorders can occur at the stage of gastric, intestinal, parietal digestion. In the stomach, peptide hydrolases cleave peptide bonds between aromatic and dicarboxylic amino acids. Protein digestion sharply slows down in hypoacid conditions, especially with achilia and total gastric resection (if the pH does not reach at least 5.0 units). Without
  15. Gastrointestinal nutrition and cancer
    Cancer of the transverse colon and rectum Many theories have been put forward about the role of nutrition in the development of colon cancer. The human diet includes a large number of substances with mutagenic and carcinogenic properties, as well as antagonists and blockers of these compounds. Therefore, it is very difficult to determine which of them has a damaging effect. Carcinogens that damage the upper sections
  16. Gastrointestinal Disorder Syndrome
    The leading symptom is loose stools (diarrhea). Etiology. The cause of the gastrointestinal tract upset syndrome in children is most often acute intestinal infections (AEI), AEI is a large group of diseases, the main clinical manifestations of which are loose stools, dyspeptic disorders, symptoms of intoxication and dehydration. Most acute respiratory infections in children have
  17. Bleeding from the upper gastrointestinal tract
    It is customary to talk about bleeding from the upper gastrointestinal tract (GIT) in cases where the source of bleeding is located either in the esophagus, or in the stomach, or in the duodenum (duodenum). Pathophysiology The most common causes of bleeding in adults are: duodenal ulcer; erosion of the stomach and duodenum; varicose veins
    According to a survey of nosocomial infections in the United States, gastroenteritis develops in approximately 10.5 people per 10 thousand received in medical institutions. The etiology of gastrointestinal infections can be established in approximately 97% of cases; of which bacteria account for 93%. The predominant bacterial pathogen is C. difficile - 91%, viruses (rotaviruses) account for 5.3%. Allocate
  19. Practical recommendations for the normalization of the gastrointestinal tract
    Now, having gotten a little acquainted with the technology of the gastrointestinal tract, one should act in accordance with it. So, practical recommendations. Do not drink plenty of fluids before meals. Enzymes are diluted and washed off into the underlying sections of the gastrointestinal tract. Do not drink plenty of fluids immediately after eating. Drinking liquid will not only dilute the digestive juices of the small intestine, but also wash it off
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