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Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation Syndrome (DIC)


DIC-syndrome is a pathological condition that is determined by excessive intravascular coagulation and hemorrhagic coagulopathy of consumption and is manifested by a violation of the function of individual organs.
The processes of intravascular coagulation are a natural attribute of the body. In the blood of every healthy person, as well as sick people, there are always certain amounts of markers of intravascular coagulation, such as fibrinopeptide A, which is cleaved from the fibrinogen molecule in the initial phase of fibrin formation, soluble complexes of fibrin monomers, and d-dimers are the products of cleavage stabilized fibrin, 4th platelet factor, and (3-thromboglobulin are witnesses of the platelet release reaction, confirming their activity. Details of these factors were facilitated by the observation in 1950 of a death the patient ate due to severe hemorrhagic syndrome, which was accompanied by massive intravascular coagulation. The following gradation of the intensity of intravascular coagulation is proposed:
I degree of intensity - normal hemocoagulation, characterized by the presence of markers of intravascular coagulation within normal limits;
II degree of intensity - the level of markers of intravascular coagulation is increased, but does not significantly affect the clinical picture of the disease;
III degree of intensity - characterized by the fact that intravascular
hemocoagulation causes organ dysfunction, hypotension, up to shock or a thrombohemorrhagic phenomenon, or their various combinations.
An increase in the intensity of intravascular coagulation is observed in any acute and chronic disease, as well as in certain physiological conditions, including when performing active physical exercises.

A pronounced activation of the intravascular coagulation process due to the appearance of active hemocoagulation inducers in the blood or the action of the tissue factor itself can activate both the procoagulant and platelet hemostasis or both of these links and lead to the formation of microthrombi, which is especially noticeable in the microvasculature. As a result, with the localization of microthrombi in individual organs, the functions of the latter are violated. At the same time, coagulation factors and platelets are consumed in a thrombotic clot, which, combined with the activation of the fibrinolytic blood system, leads to the development of severe bleeding. This phase of disseminated intravascular coagulation is called consumption coagulopathy, as well as thrombohemorrhagic syndrome.

Currently, it is recognized that the term DIC is advisable to maintain for the III degree of intensity of intravascular coagulation and not to apply in the presence of the first two stages. Thrombohemorrhagic syndrome, or consumption coagulopathy, or DIC, is most common with neoplasms (especially with leukemia, hepatomas), infections, collagenoses, as well as obstetric pathology - with premature placental abruption, intrauterine fetal death and amniotic fluid embolism. Often it can be observed with injuries, prolonged crushing syndrome and burns. Sometimes it can complicate surgery.
Thus, thromboses and hemorrhages and their various combinations, including thrombohemorrhagic syndrome, develop as a result of impaired function of the hemocoagulation system of the body.
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Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation Syndrome (DIC)

  1. Acquired coagulopathy (disseminated intravascular coagulation, defibrination syndrome, DIC)
    DIC-syndrome is a non-specific general pathological process characterized by generalized activation of the hemostasis-antihemostasis system, in which there is a mismatch of the regulation systems of the state of aggregation of blood. The etiological factor of the disease are: - generalized infections, septic conditions; - shock of any origin; - extensive surgical interventions,
  2. Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)
    Disseminated intravascular coagulation is a critical disorder of systemic coagulation, characterized by widespread bleeding and thrombosis, multiple organ failure, activation of procoagulants and / or fibrinolysis, and consumption of anticoagulants. DIC is a dynamic process: the hypercoagulation phase is replaced by a hypocoagulation phase (due to depletion of coagulation factors
  3. DISSEMINATED INTERNAL VASCULAR COAGING (DIC-SYNDROME)
    Disseminated intravascular coagulation is a critical disorder of systemic coagulation, characterized by widespread bleeding and thrombosis, multiple organ failure, activation of procoagulants and / or fibrinolysis, and consumption of anticoagulants. DIC is a dynamic process: the phase of hypercoagulation is replaced by the phase of hypocoagulation (due to depletion of factors
  4. Disseminated intravascular coagulation syndrome
    Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) syndrome is an acquired secondary disorder of the hemostatic system that occurs under the influence of various pathological agents on the child's body. According to modern views on this general clinical pathology, DIC is considered as a nonspecific pathological process, accompanied by intravascular coagulation
  5. Syndrome of Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation of Blood
    In obstetric and gynecological practice, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) syndrome is often found. Most often, it is observed with hemorrhagic shock of any etiology, bacterial-toxic shock, traumatic shock. There are 4 main stages of the syndrome: stage I - hypercoagulation; Stage II - hypocoagulation without generalized activation
  6. Disseminated intravascular coagulation syndrome
    SYNONYMS DIC. Definition DIC-syndrome - the occurrence of diffuse fibrin deposits in microvessels, the formation of intravascular microclots with the consumption of procoagulants and platelets, pathological fibrinolysis and the simultaneous development of bleeding due to deficiency of hemostatic factors. The condition is always secondary, develops in severe course of some pathological
  7. Disseminated intravascular coagulation syndrome
    DIC is a non-specific general pathological process that accompanies the course of almost all critical and terminal conditions. This complex pathological process occurs in many diseases, being secondary to them. Its essence lies in the development of diffuse coagulation of blood in the vascular bed with the formation of a huge number of microclots and aggregates
  8. Syndrome of Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation of Blood
    ETIOLOGY Severe forms of gestosis, premature detachment of a normally located placenta, hemorrhagic shock, amniotic fluid embolism, sepsis, diseases of the cardiovascular system, kidneys, liver, rhesus conflict, transfusion of incompatible blood, undeveloped pregnancy, and others. The above listed conditions lead to hypoxia and metabolic acidosis, which in turn
  9. Syndrome of Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation of Blood
    ETIOLOGY Severe forms of gestosis, premature detachment of a normally located placenta, hemorrhagic shock, amniotic fluid embolism, sepsis, diseases of the cardiovascular system, kidneys, liver, rhesus conflict, transfusion of incompatible blood, undeveloped pregnancy, and others. The above listed conditions lead to hypoxia and metabolic acidosis, which in turn
  10. Syndrome of Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation of Blood
    Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation Syndrome
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