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Disseminated intravascular coagulation syndrome (DIC)


DIC syndrome is a pathological condition that is determined by excessive intravascular coagulation of blood and hemorrhagic coagulopathy of consumption and is manifested by dysfunction of individual organs.
The processes of intravascular coagulation are a natural attribute of the vital activity of the organism. In the blood of every healthy person, like sick people, there are always certain amounts of markers of intravascular blood coagulation, such as fibrinopeptide A, splitting off from the fibrinogen molecule in the initial phase of fibrin formation, soluble fibrin monomer complexes, and d-dimers are cleavage products stabilized fibrin, 4th platelet factor and (Z-thromboglobulin - witnesses of the reaction of platelet release, confirming their activity. Details of these factors contributed to the observation in 1950 of the death The patient ate due to pronounced hemorrhagic syndrome, which was accompanied by massive intravascular coagulation of blood.The following grades of intravascular coagulation of blood were proposed:
I degree of intensity - normal hemocoagulation, characterized by the presence of markers of intravascular coagulation of blood in the normal range;
II degree of intensity - the level of markers of intravascular coagulation is increased, but does not significantly affect the clinical picture of the disease;
III degree of intensity - is characterized by the fact that intravascular
hemocoagulation causes dysfunction of organs, hypotension up to shock or a thrombohemorrhagic phenomenon, or various combinations thereof.
An increase in the intensity of intravascular blood coagulation is observed in any acute and chronic disease, as well as in certain physiological conditions, including when performing active physical exercises.

A pronounced activation of the process of intravascular coagulation due to the appearance in blood of active inducers of hemocoagulation or the action of the tissue factor itself can activate both procoagulant and platelet hemostasis or both at the same time and lead to the formation of microthrombus, which is especially noticeable in the microvasculature. As a result, when localized microthrombus in individual organs, the functions of the latter are violated. At the same time, the clotting factors of blood and platelet factors are consumed in a thrombotic clot, which, when combined with the activation of the fibrinolytic system of the blood, leads to the development of severe bleeding. This phase of disseminated intravascular blood coagulation is called consumption coagulopathy, as well as thrombohemorrhagic syndrome.

At present, it is recognized that the term ICE is advisable to maintain for the III degree of intensity of intravascular blood coagulation and not to apply in the presence of the first two stages. Thrombohemorrhagic syndrome, or consumption coagulopathy, or DIC, is most common in neoplasms (especially with leukemias, hepatomas), infections, collagenoses, as well as in obstetric pathology - in case of premature detachment of the placenta, intrauterine fetal death and embolism. Often it can be observed with injuries, crush syndrome and burns. Sometimes it can complicate surgical interventions.
Thus, both thrombosis and hemorrhages and their various combinations, including the thrombohemorrhagic syndrome, develop as a result of impaired function of the hemocoagulation system of the body.
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Disseminated intravascular coagulation syndrome (DIC)

  1. Acquired coagulopathy (disseminated intravascular coagulation, defibrination syndrome, DIC)
    DIC syndrome is a non-specific general pathological process characterized by generalized activation of the hemostasis-anti-hemostasis system, during which there is a mismatch between the systems for the regulation of the aggregative state of the blood. The etiological factor of the disease are: - generalized infections, septic conditions; - shock of any origin; - extensive surgical interventions,
  2. Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)
    Disseminated intravascular coagulation is a critical disorder of systemic coagulation, characterized by widespread bleeding and thrombosis, multiple organ failure, activation of procoagulants and / or fibrinolysis, consumption of anticoagulants. DIC is a dynamic process: the phase of hypercoagulation is replaced by the phase of hypocoagulation (due to the depletion of coagulation factors
  3. DISSEMINATED INTRA-VASCULAR COAGULATION (ICE-SYNDROME)
    Disseminated intravascular coagulation is a critical disorder of systemic coagulation, characterized by widespread bleeding and thrombosis, multiple organ failure, activation of procoagulants and / or fibrinolysis, consumption of anticoagulants. DIC is a dynamic process: the phase of hypercoagulation is replaced by the phase of hypocoagulation (due to the exhaustion of factors
  4. Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation Syndrome
    The syndrome of disseminated intravascular blood coagulation (DIC) is an acquired secondary disorder of the hemostasis system that occurs under the effect on the body of a child of various pathological agents. According to modern views on this common clinical pathology, DIC is considered as a non-specific pathological process, accompanied by intravascular coagulation.
  5. SYNDROME OF THE DISSEMINATED INTRA VASCULAR BLOOD COAGULATION
    In obstetric and gynecological practice, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) syndrome is often encountered. Most often it is observed in hemorrhagic shock of any etiology, bacterial and toxic shock, traumatic shock. There are 4 main stages of the syndrome: Stage I - hypercoagulation; Stage II - hypocoagulation without generalized activation
  6. Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation Syndrome
    SYNONYMS DIC. DEFINITION. DIC syndrome is the occurrence of diffuse fibrin deposits in microvessels, the formation of intravascular microclusters with the consumption of procoagulants and platelets, pathological fibrinolysis and the simultaneous development of bleeding due to a deficiency of hemostatic factors. The state is always secondary, it develops with severe course of some pathological
  7. Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation Syndrome
    DIC is a nonspecific general pathological process that accompanies the course of almost all critical and terminal states. This complex pathological process occurs in many diseases, being secondary to them. Its essence lies in the development of disseminated blood coagulation in the vascular bed with the formation of a huge number of microbunches and aggregates
  8. SYNDROME OF THE DISSEMINATED INTRA VASCULAR BLOOD COAGULATION
    ETIOLOGY Severe forms of gestosis, premature detachment of a normally located placenta, hemorrhagic shock, amniotic fluid embolism, sepsis, diseases of the cardiovascular system, kidney, liver, Rh conflict, incompatible blood transfusion, non-developing pregnancy, etc. Above listed conditions lead to hysteria and metabolic acidosis, which in turn
  9. SYNDROME OF THE DISSEMINATED INTRA VASCULAR BLOOD COAGULATION
    ETIOLOGY Severe forms of gestosis, premature detachment of a normally located placenta, hemorrhagic shock, amniotic fluid embolism, sepsis, diseases of the cardiovascular system, kidney, liver, Rh conflict, incompatible blood transfusion, non-developing pregnancy, etc. Above listed conditions lead to hysteria and metabolic acidosis, which in turn
  10. SYNDROME OF THE DISSEMINATED INTRA VASCULAR BLOOD COAGULATION
    SYNDROME OF DISSEMINATED INTRA VASCULAR COURSE
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