the main
about the project
Medicine news
To authors
Licensed books on medicine
<< Ahead Next >>

Stress limiting factors

Since in every realizing factor of the general adaptation syndrome with its uncontrolled development there is a potential danger of the appearance of pathogenic transformations, there must be a natural system of control, self-limitation of these factors.

F.Z. Meerson and M.G. Pshennikova [16] note two significant features of the process of adaptation to stress situations. First, stress-realizing factors are included only when adaptation to changes in external conditions cannot be achieved only through external, behavioral reactions, and the stress response reproduces a physiological phenomenon equivalent to what in ordinary life is designated as patience or endurance . Secondly, as the action of the external stimulus continues (if it does not exceed the individually determined possibilities of the stress reaction), the irritation of the stress-realizing factors gradually diminishes due to the achievement of the adaptation effect. providing a kind of "patience" of the organism at the physiological level. This is reflected in a decrease in blood concentration of catecholamines acting on target organs, and in reducing the likelihood of stress damage to internal organs.

In other words, the situation is reproduced in which stress-realizing factors acquire increased power up to a certain time and continue to work in accordance with this power, without experiencing the stimulating effect of the stress reaction on the continued influx of external stimuli. This situation is very beneficial for the body. In essence, it is the basis of adaptation to stress effects. On this basis, the authors hypothesize [15], according to which one of the main mechanisms of adaptation to stress situations is the activation of central regulatory mechanisms that inhibit release of releasing factors and, as a result, the release of catecholamines and corticosterone. Such mechanisms are associated with various factors that provide both central and peripheral regulation of the developing stress reaction. They were designated by the authors as stress-limiting factors, or stress-limiting systems. It makes a logical assumption that, in the process of evolution, the conjugation of stress-realizing and stress-limiting factors provides an increase in adaptive capacity for repeated stress effects. At the same time, an organism can be protected not only from damaging stress situations, but also from many damaging environmental factors, which are blocked by stress-limiting systems. This assumption was confirmed in the course of special studies [15]. The use of short-term stress effects or medications, including metabolites of stress-limiting systems, contributed to the prevention and treatment of stress injuries, as well as diseases pathogenetically associated with previous stress, such as duodenal ulcer or stomach ulcer, autoimmune or allergic diseases, coronary heart disease, blast disease diseases.

The authors identify several central stress-limiting factors, which are designated as individual stress-limiting systems. This is, firstly, the GABA-ergic system. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a mediator of postsynaptic inhibition of brain and spinal cord neurons and presympathic blockade of neurotransmitter release from various nerve terminals. The stress-limiting effect of the GABAergic system is due to the presence of GABAergic receptors and GABAergic neurons of the CNS in the innervation of almost all organs.

The action of the second stress-limiting system, the benzodiazepine, is closely related to GABA receptors. The natural and synthetic products of the benzodiazepine series are benzodiazepine (diazepam). phenozepam are classic ligands. They potentiate the effects of GABA systems at all levels of the central nervous system.

The third, the opioidergic system, is represented in the body by opioid peptides and opioid receptors. Opioid peptides are endogenous products with analgesic morphine-like effects. As established by studies of the last decade [17, 26], they are regulators and modulators of many processes, and the analgesic effect is just one of the manifestations of their complex function. Studies of a group of domestic immunologists under the guidance of R.V. Petrov in 1984 revealed previously unknown regulatory peptides of bone marrow origin, called myelopeptides [24]. They possess both opioid and immunomodulatory activity. These studies confirmed the complex, multifunctional and highly branched nature of the opioidergic system. Opioidergic receptors are located in the cells of various parts of the brain, as well as in many organs and tissues, localized in the synapses, nerve endings, secretory and other effector cells. Stress response stimulates the formation of opioid peptides. Under stress, they contribute to an increase in the perception threshold of pain and other irritants, as well as prevent severe hyperthermia.

Topographically and functionally, the opioidergic system is associated not only with stress-realizing factors, but also with other stress-limiting systems.
One of them is the serotonergic system. Opioid peptides cause intense naloxone-dependent release of serotonin from serotinergic neurons. On the other hand, the analgesic effect of opioid peptides is significantly potentiated by serotonin. It follows from this that congenital or acquired insufficiency of the opioid or serotonergic systems increases the body's vulnerability to stress effects [16].

Peripheral stress-limiting mechanisms are implemented through an antioxidant and antioxidant protection system, as well as through a prostaglandin system.

As you know, stress hormones (catecholamines, vasopressin, and others) increase the activity of lipases and phospholipases, which contribute to the intensification of POL. As a result, viscosity decreases and fluidity of the membrane lipid bilayer increases, which facilitates the mobilization of peptide bonds of active functional membrane-bound proteins. To a moderate, controlled degree, this process is a necessary component of the stress response. However, the uncontrolled intensification of the FLOOR contributes to damage to various organs and tissues. An antioxidant defense system acts as a controlling factor, the production of active products of which increases along with the intensification of POL. The failure of this system increases the damaging effect of the stress reaction.

The prostaglandin system is represented by a series of compounds derived from polyunsaturated fatty acids with 20 carbon atoms [5]. The main precursor of prostaglandins is arachidonic acid. Products of its metabolism (prostaglandins, thromboxane, prostacyclin, leukotrienes) are mediators and regulators of cell response to various external stimuli and generally have an important effect on cell growth and viability, on intracellular metabolism. They are among the most powerful local stress-limiting factors.

Experimental and clinical studies established. that the use of GABA, as well as opioid peptides. synthetic opiates. serotonin, alpha tocopherol. synthetic antioxidants. Adenosine derivatives are able to reduce the damaging effect of the stress response in case of congenital or acquired inferiority of stress-limiting factors [16].

Thus, the development of the general adaptation syndrome and its outcome depend on a complex set of regulatory mechanisms, or otherwise - management tools. Each of these management tools is characterized by its own tasks and its own solutions. In general, they have a common goal - the achievement of adaptation. although at the level of deep, cellular and molecular processes, they can show inconsistency, leading to disorganization and hindering the achievement of a common goal. In this regard, there are three levels of regulation of the stress response. The first level is central regulation. It is achieved by a physiologically deterministic change in the hormonal status of the organism, in which the pituitary – adrenal cortex system takes the leading role, as well as a significant increase in the tone of the sympathetic level of the autonomic nervous system. The second level is the regulation of the local transformation of visceral functions. Here, the leading regulatory tool is the meta-sympathetic autonomic nervous system, which, during the development of the stress reaction, combines two extremely important functions. On the one hand, it maintains and protects from stability of powerful sympathetic impulses the stability of the oscillation regime of local basic metabolic processes, the preservation of which is an indispensable condition for the return from urgent (unstable) to long-term (stable) adaptation of the organism. On the other hand, it immediately after the cessation (or already in the process) of stress effects is included in the management of the coordinated development of very fragile, vulnerable initial mechanisms of long-term adaptation, protecting them from the effects of pronounced sympathetic hypertonia. Finally, the third level of regulation is directly correlated with the intermolecular intercellular interaction during the development of the general adaptation syndrome. Here are very complex mechanisms of self-regulation. the effect of which depends on the state of unstable equilibrium between stress-realizing and stress-limiting factors in their individual, specific for a particular organism manifestation. In the case of the prevalence of stress-realizing trends, there is a risk of the development of pathological manifestations associated with the uncontrolled activation of the mechanisms of urgent adaptation after the cessation of the action of the stimulus. If the equilibrium is shifted towards stress-limiting factors, there is a danger of a decrease in the level of reactivity of the organism, precluding the possibility of the full development of the general adaptation syndrome.
<< Ahead Next >>
= Go to tutorial content =

Stress limiting factors

  1. Stress as a risk factor for health
    The threat to physical and mental health, social well-being of a person is often stress. According to WHO, 45% of all diseases are associated with stress, and some experts believe that this figure is 2 times higher. The term "stress" - of English origin (English Stress - pressure, effort, tension, tension). This term came to medicine and psychology in 1936, when in the journal
  2. Oxidative stress and other biochemical factors causing the pathology of the nervous system
    The achievement of the fundamental neurobiological sciences is the discovery of single mechanisms of neuron damage in various pathological conditions - this is excitotoxicity (from the English. Excite - to initiate) and oxidative stress. Within the framework of the theory of excitotoxicity, the ideas that excessive release of excitatory neurotransmitters (glutamate and aspartate) are developed and argued
  3. The effects of stress on human mental activity in difficult conditions. The process of stress formation.
    The concepts of "stress" and "mental tension" are used as synonyms for the characterization of human mental activity in difficult conditions. Stress is the nonspecific response of the body to the increased demands on it. By requirements are meant all the effects, or stressors, that lead to a change in the activity of the organism. This may be a change in social status, and
  4. Communication under stress. Socio-psychological stress syndrome
    Changes in the functional state of a person under stress change his attitude towards the world around him, including the world of people. Fig. 3 Scheme for the development of a socio-psychological stress syndrome; Studies of intragroup interaction under conditions of prolonged isolation have shown that it is a factor that significantly influences the performance of group members.
  5. Phases of stress development (stress syndromes)
    Psychological and psychophysiological studies of stress with extreme factors of different nature and different duration allowed us to identify a number of forms of adaptive activity (each of which was characterized by a large number of symptoms belonging to any one class of manifestations of human activity). forms of “general adaptation syndrome” that can be
  6. People say that stress stops the release of milk, so how can we breastfeed in difficult times, full of stress?
    In societies where women never doubt their ability to breastfeed, mothers breastfed their children throughout the ages during famines and wars and saved their lives. In the same societies where artificial feeding has become widespread, and faith in breastfeeding has fallen, women are breastfed even less frequently during emergencies. Humanitarian workers,
  7. Combat stress
    The etiological factor of psychosomatic pathology in the wounded is combat stress. Participation in hostilities is considered as a stressor, traumatic for almost any person. Unlike other stressors, participation in the war is prolonged psychotraumatization and is accompanied by the complex influence of a number of factors: 1 - a clearly perceived feeling of a threat to life, the so-called
  8. Stress and health
    An integral part of modern life is a constant collision with situations that cause stress. If a person has learned to cope with stress, his life goes more safely and is associated with fewer difficulties. The inability to withstand psychological stresses entails somatic, nervous and other mental illnesses. Stress (from English, stress - stress.
    Myth: Stress can not cause real harm to my health, because it exists only in imagination. Fact: Stress affects not only mental processes, but also physiological ones. A disease that develops as a result of stress can be a real health hazard. Examples are angina pectoris, hypertension, immunodeficiency, peptic ulcer disease, etc. Myth: From
  10. STRESS
    STRESS (stress reaction) (English stress - stress), a special state of the human body and mammals, arising in response to a strong external stimulus. The concept of stress was developed by Canadian physiologist G. Selye, who first applied this physical term in biology in 1936. According to Selye, any sufficiently strong external stimulus (stressor), physical or mental, causes
  11. Stress and health
    An integral part of modern life is a constant collision with situations that cause stress. Stress (from the English. Stress - stress) - the state of psycho-physiological stress. If a person has learned to cope with stress, his life goes more safely and is associated with fewer difficulties. The inability to withstand psychological stress entails somatic,
  12. Teaching about stress
    The study of stress is one of the leading sections of modern medicine. The founder of this trend is Hans Selye, who, as a student at Prague University, in 1926 published the first observations about patients suffering from a variety of somatic ailments. All of these patients experienced loss of appetite, muscle weakness, high blood pressure, loss of motivation.
    There is a rapture in battle ... A. S. Pushkin Studies of combat stress (in real battles) have hardly been conducted. Psychologists were few. They did not have enough to go into battle in chains with soldiers and sit under shots on the front lines. Military psychologists worked (and work) in units that had left combat, in headquarters and rear units, in hospitals, with soldiers retired, and with documents reflecting
  14. Question 44. Emotional stress
    stress of non-specific adaptive reactions of the body on the pathogenic effect of the external environment, mediated by extreme strength or long-term negative emotions. Emotional experience underlies many adaptive physiological reactions, which allow the organism to overcome conflict situations by mobilizing reserve possibilities. Under certain conditions, E. s. can
Medical portal "MedguideBook" © 2014-2016