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Malignant Epithelial Tumors

They are called cancer, or carcinoma.

General characteristics.

1. Meet much more often than all other malignant tumors.

2. Often associated with previous diseases and conditions, which are called precancerous.

3. The development of many carcinomas (morphogenesis) is associated with previous changes in the epithelium - hyperplasia, metaplasia, dysplasia.

4. The only precancerous process at present is considered to be dysplasia of the epithelium, which, progressing from mild to moderate and severe, can lead to the development of carcinoma in situ and subsequently invasive cancer that sprouts surrounding tissue.

• In situ carcinoma (cancer in situ) is an intraepithelial tumor that does not extend beyond the basement membrane.

• Dysplasia and its transition to cancer are well studied in the cervix, in the mammary gland, in the colon and some other organs.

• In stratified squamous epithelium of the cervix, dysplasia is manifested by disorganization of the epithelial layer with loss of cell polarity, hyperchromia of the nuclei, which begins in the basal layers and spread to the outer layers, accompanied by an increase in the degree of cellular atypism.

but. Mild dysplasia captures no more than V3 formation thickness.

b. Mild dysplasia involves about half the thickness of the epithelium.

at. Severe dysplasia occupies about 2/3 of the thickness of the epithelial layer, with significant cell polymorphism, mitosis is visible.

g.
In situ carcinoma is characterized by damage to the entire thickness of the epithelium, significant cellular polymorphism.

• In many cases, it is difficult to distinguish between severe dysplasia from carcinoma in situ, and therefore it is proposed to combine both conditions under the name CIN 3 (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 3) and apply a single treatment tactic to it.

• There is a good relationship between dysplasia (atypical hyperplasia) of the ductal epithelium of the mammary gland and the development of carcinoma in situ.

but. Atypical hyperplasia is represented by proliferation of ductal epithelium with a violation of its polarity, signs of cellular atypism.

b. In situ carcinoma (intraductal carcinoma, non-invasive carcinoma): the lumen of the enlarged ducts of the gland is filled with polymorphic tumor cells with numerous mitoses, the nuclei are large, hyperchromic, and the nuclear cytoplasmic index is increased. Sometimes sections of necrosis can be detected in the lumen. Tumor cells do not extend beyond the basement membrane.

• In situ carcinoma does not metastasize.

• Invasive cancer is characterized by all signs of a malignant tumor (see topic 8, Tumors. General Provisions).

• Cancer metastasizes mainly lymphogenically: the first metastases occur in regional lymph nodes; hematogenous and implantation metastases may subsequently occur.
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Malignant Epithelial Tumors

  1. TUMOR GROWTH. TUMOR PROGRESSION. TUMOR MORPHOGENESIS. INVASION AND METASTASIS OF MALIGNANT TUMORS. BIOMOLECULAR TUMORS MARKERS. ANTITUMOR IMMUNITY. PARANEOPLASTIC SYNDROMES. BASIC PRINCIPLES OF CLASSIFICATION OF TUMORS. MORPHOLOGICAL FEATURES OF TUMORS FROM EPITELIUM AND TUMORS FROM TISSUES - DERIVATED MESENCHIMES
    TUMOR GROWTH. TUMOR PROGRESSION. TUMOR MORPHOGENESIS. INVASION AND METASTASIS OF MALIGNANT TUMORS. BIOMOLECULAR TUMORS MARKERS. ANTITUMOR IMMUNITY. PARANEOPLASTIC SYNDROMES. BASIC PRINCIPLES OF CLASSIFICATION OF TUMORS. MORPHOLOGICAL FEATURES OF TUMORS FROM EPITELIUM AND TUMORS FROM TISSUES - DERIVATIVES
  2. Epithelial tumors
    1. What is a malignant tumor from the integumentary epithelium: a) sarcoma b) adenoma c) adenocarcinoma d) squamous epithelium e) papilloma Correct answer: d 2. Property of adenocarcinoma: a) develops from connective tissue b) develops from glandular epithelium c) organ-specific d ) no atypism e) does not produce metastases Correct answer: b 3. The origin of chorionepithelioma: a) endometrium b)
  3. Epithelial tumors
    Adenomas (adenomatous, or glandular, polyps). They are either small exophytic tumors on the pedicle (see chapter 7), or large neoplasms on a broad base. From 20 to 30% of such tumors occurs in people under the age of 40 years and 40-50% in people over 60 years of age. A familial predisposition to sporadically developing glandular polyps is well known: among immediate relatives
  4. Benign Epithelial Tumors
    These neoplasms are widespread and, although they can cause significant psychological discomfort, nevertheless, as a rule, they are not accompanied by any serious consequences. Benign tumors originating from the stratified squamous keratinized epithelium, keratinocytes of the hair follicles and ductal lining of the skin glands can reproduce the same during growth
  5. General information about tumor growth. Epithelial tumors without specific localization
    A tumor is a pathological process or substrate, represented by a newly formed tissue, in which changes in the genetic apparatus of cells lead to dysregulation of their growth and differentiation. The tumor is characterized by uncontrolled cell multiplication, characterized by morphological, biochemical, histochemical and antigenic atypism. Morphological atypism is divided into tissue and cell. The first
  6. Epithelial organ-specific tumors. Cancer of individual organs
    Organ-specific tumors are tumors that develop in certain organs and retain their morphological and functional features. According to the frequency of occurrence among tumors of various localization, lung cancer is the first, and gastric cancer is the second. Breast cancer is the most common tumor in women. Basal cell skin cancer (basal cell carcinoma) is a plaque, nodule or deep
  7. Malignant tumors
    Malignant tumors of the nose and paranasal sinuses take third place in frequency among other malignant lesions of the upper respiratory tract (larynx and pharynx) and, according to published data, comprise 2 - 3% of malignant tumors of all localizations. Malignant tumors most often develop in the maxillary sinus. In second place in frequency are lattice maze tumors.
  8. Malignant tumors
    SARCOM is a malignant tumor from the mesenchymal tissue. Unlike sarcoma cancer, the first metastases are hematogenous. Histogenesis sarcomas are divided into a number of varieties. From fibrous tissue. 1. Fibrosarcoma. 2. Swelling dermatofibroma (malignant histiocytoma) - unlike other sarcomas, it is characterized by slow growth and for a long time does not give metastases, although it grows
  9. Malignant tumors
    In the upper respiratory tract, cancer is mainly found in various forms and rarely (about 3% in relation to malignant tumors of the ENT organs)
  10. Malignant pharyngeal tumors
    The comparative incidence of pharyngeal cancers is high; carcinomas, lymphoepitheliomas, cytoblastomas, sarcomas, reticulocytomas, and mixed tumors are found among them. Men get sick more often than women, usually in middle age. K l and n and with to and to kartin and. The early symptoms of pharyngeal malignant tumors are poor and little characteristic. Light sensations may appear.
  11. Malignant tumors of the nose and paranasal sinuses
    Malignant diseases of this localization - cancer and isarcoma, as a rule, are primary. They are relatively rare, more often in middle-aged and elderly men. Most often, the primary malignant process affects the maxillary, then ethmoid, frontal and sphenoid sinuses. Rarely, the source of the malignant tumor is the nasal septum. Malignancy
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