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The relevance of research and problem statement

The problem of the formation of readiness for professional activity was and remains a key one for the psychological and pedagogical theory and practice of professional education. Its main goal in the “Concept for the modernization of Russian education for the period until 2010” is the achievement of a new modern quality of professional education with an orientation to international standards, namely, “training a qualified employee of the appropriate level and profile, competitive in the labor market, competent, responsible, fluent their profession and oriented in related fields of activity, capable of efficient work in their specialty at the level of world standards, tovogo to continuous professional growth ... ".

Despite a significant expansion of research in this area, the contradiction between the request of modern society for a highly trained specialist and the insufficient level of real readiness of university graduates for professional activities is increasingly indicated. This fully applies to new areas of professional training and activities, in particular, in the field of practical psychology of education. The social situation in the development of domestic practical educational psychology is characterized, in our opinion, by a number of serious contradictions:

- between the obvious need of all participants in the educational process for psychological support and their distrust of the possibilities and the need for practical psychology in education;

- between understanding the uniqueness and specificity of the nature of the practical psychology of education as a new area of ​​professional activity and using the traditional ways of training such a specialist without taking into account the uniqueness of this profession;

- between the increasing from year to year the number of certified psychologists among graduates of pedagogical universities and the unsatisfied need of educational institutions for these specialists.

At the highest psychological forums (four All-Russian congresses of practical psychologists of education, annual national scientific and practical conferences of the Federation of practical psychologists of education "Educational Psychology"), the still insufficiently high level of readiness of young psychologists for independent professional activity is constantly noted and the problem of improving the quality of their professional education is discussed . Dissatisfaction of all interested parties is noted: educational institutions as customers for the training of psychologists for this field; the subjects of vocational training themselves with its final level and content; universities as executors of an order for the training of educational psychologists.

Given the specificity of the subject matter of the educational psychologist, the problem of the quality of professional education of this specialist must be considered as one of the components of the problem of the quality of life of the developing personality of the child, which determines the relevance of the research topic.

One of the main reasons for the lack of preparedness of practical psychologists for professional activity is the mismatch of the traditional paradigm of university training of these specialists with modern requirements. In university practice, there is still no system for the productive personal and professional development of a future psychologist, the reproductive methods of his training prevail, which ensure that the student is “filled” with knowledge. This leads to insufficient practice-oriented preparation for independent professional activity. As a result, the formation of a psychologist of education, its formation as a subject of chosen activity occurs after graduation through "trial and error." All this confirms the existence of a contradiction between the social order of society for psychologists who are able to solve complex professional problems in modern educational conditions, and insufficiently studied mechanisms for the effective professionalization of a future psychologist.

In the last two decades, a large number of works have appeared that contribute to resolving the highlighted contradiction:

? the theoretical and technological foundations of psychological and pedagogical education are laid (A.G. Asmolov, A.A. Verbitsky, I.V. Dubrovina, N.V. Kuzmina, V.V. Rubtsov, V.A. Slastenin, D.I. Feldstein, V.D. Shadrikov, etc.);

? An intensive search is underway for a constructive compromise between the academic and practical paradigms of psychological education (G.S. Abramova, I.D. Badmaev, I.V. Vachkov, I.V. Dubrovina, E.I. Isaev, E.A. Klimov, V . I. Liaudis, V.I. Slobodchikov, B.A. Sosnovsky, L.V. Temnova, etc.);

? psychological and pedagogical concepts and models of the psychologist’s work are created (G.S. Abramova, A.K. Markov, L.M. Mitin, R.V. Ovcharova, E.I. Rogov, E.S. Romanova and others);

? Numerous aspects of the professional development of a future psychologist are studied at the university stage of its formation (M.M. Balashov, T.M. Buyakas, T.L. Vernyaeva, T.N. Klyueva, I.V. Konovalova, M.I. Lukyanova, I .A. Savenkova et al.);

? the acmeological foundations of the activity and personality of a practical psychologist are studied (A.A. Bodalev, A.A. Derkach, N.V. Kuzmina, etc.).

Nevertheless, the mechanisms of mastering the professional activity of a psychologist remain insufficiently studied in comparison, for example, with the profession of a teacher or engineer. As a result, up to the present, there is no holistic scientifically based system of the modern organization and content of professional education of the future educational psychologist, which ensures his readiness for successful independent professional activity.

Thus, the formation of the educational psychologist’s readiness for professional activity is an urgent and significant psychological and pedagogical problem, which consists in finding answers to questions: how to achieve the content of the initial stages of the educational psychologist’s professionalization with the features and requirements of the upcoming activity; what are the mechanisms and conditions for the formation of a future education psychologist as a subject of professional activity; what educational technologies will ensure the formation of psychologist competencies necessary for independent professional activity.



The purpose of the study is to develop a concept for the formation of the readiness of educational psychologists for professional activities.

Object of study - readiness for professional activity.

The subject of the study is the psychological and pedagogical mechanisms and technologies for the phased formation of the readiness of the future educational psychologist for professional activities.

The hypothesis of the study is the assumption that the readiness for professional activity of an educational psychologist:

? characterized by heterochronism of formation, manifested in the heterogeneous and uneven development of structural components;

? has a phased structure for the formation of consecutive new formations in the form of readiness for the choice of the profession of a psychologist of education, readiness for educational and professional activities to master the profession and readiness for its implementation;

? the main mechanisms of readiness formation at the pre-university stage of professionalization are the conformity of images of the profession of a psychologist of education, oneself and one's professional future, as well as the assimilation and development of a set of educational and cognitive actions and ideas about educational and professional activities;

? the main mechanisms of readiness formation at the university stage of professionalization are self-designing the professional and personal development of the future educational psychologist and the transformation of acquired knowledge into competence;

? the development of successive neoplasms of readiness requires the use of specially developed psychological and pedagogical technologies corresponding to the mechanisms for the formation of readiness for professional activity at the pre-university and university stages of professionalization of educational psychologists.

The formulated goal, subject and hypothesis required the solution of the following research tasks:

1. To determine the structure, content and criteria of the educational psychologist’s readiness for professional activity;

2. Conduct a systematic psychological analysis of the work of the educational psychologist as a type of professional activity;

3. To develop a psychological and pedagogical model of the formation of the educational psychologist’s readiness for professional activity;

4. To identify the psychological mechanisms of the formation of readiness for professional activities of the educational psychologist at the pre-university and university stages;

5. To develop a set of psychological and pedagogical technologies for the formation of the educational psychologist's readiness for professional activity;

6. To conduct an empirical test of psychological and pedagogical technologies for the formation of the readiness of the future educational psychologist for professional activities in the context of modern educational practice.

The methodological basis of the study was the fundamental general scientific principles of psychology: determinism (S.L. Rubinstein), unity of consciousness and activity (A.N. Leontyev, S.L. Rubinstein), systematicity (B.F. Lomov), development (L.S. Vygotsky), the activity of the individual and the subject of activity (K.A. Abulkhanova, A.V. Brushlinsky, A.N. Leontyev).

The following scientific concepts and provisions were used as the theoretical basis of the study:

? the provisions of the subject-activity and system-activity approaches presented in the works of K.A. Abulkhanova, B.G. Ananyeva, A.V. Brush-linsky, A.N. Leontiev, B.F. Lomova, S.L. Rubinstein, V.D. Shadrikova et al .;

? psychological theories of various types of activity and readiness for it (M.I. Dyachenko and L.A. Kandybovich, L.N. Zakharova, E.A. Klimov, N.V. Kuzmina, A.K. Markova, R.D. Sanzhaeva, E.D. Telegin, D.I. Feldstein, V.D. Shadrikov, etc.);

? studies of various aspects of modern practical psychology of education and activities in it (G.S. Abramova, A.G. Asmolov, M.R. Bityanova, A.K. Bolotova, I.V. Vachkov, I.V. Dubrovina, E. A. Klimov, A.K. Markov, R.V. Ovcharova, E.S. Romanova and others);

? concepts of professional formation and development of the subject (V.A. Bodrov, A.A. Derkach, E.A. Klimov, E.F. Zeer, T.V. Kudryavtsev, L.M. Mitina, etc.);

? ideas of advanced education (B.M. Bim-Bad, B.S. Gershunsky, A.M. Novikov), continuing education (S.K. Bondyreva, A.A. Verbitsky, E.A. Klimov, A.K. Markova, V.A. Slastenin, A.I. Shcherbakov and others), personality-oriented and individually-oriented education (A.G. Asmolov, L.S. Vygotsky, I.S. Yakimanskaya, etc.), competency paradigm (E.F. Seer, I.A. Zimnaya, A.V. Khutorsky, V.D. Shadrikov, etc.);

? theories and models of professional (including psychological and pedagogical) education (A.A. Verbitsky, E.F. Zeer, E.I. Isaev, E.A. Klimov, V.Ya. Liaudis, A.A. Margolis, G.V. Mukhametzyanova, V.V. Rubtsov, V.A. Slastenin, L.V. Temnova and others),

? psychological and pedagogical technologies of personal and professional development (V.P. Bespalko, I.V. Vachkov, M.V. Klarin, I.I. Makhmutov, N.N. Nechaev, A.S. Prutchenkov, N.S. Pryazhnikov , G.K.Selevko, G.P.Shchedrovitsky and others), including foreign ones (DA Kolb, J. Neopolitan, E. Wenger).

Research methods were determined in accordance with the tasks:

1. The method of organizing research - a comprehensive formative strategy in combination of longitudinal and transverse sections;

2. Methods of collecting information:

a. Theoretical - a theoretical analysis of special psychological and pedagogical sources and research, the study and generalization of experience;

b. Empirical methods include methods of observation, active training and modeling, analysis of activity results, as well as psycho-diagnostic methods, the choice of which was determined by the space formed by two axes: content and structural components of readiness, and stages of readiness formation. In accordance with this, the following methods were used: the methodology for the diagnosis of social intelligence by D. Guilford and M. Saliven, the methodology for the diagnosis of empathy of A. Mehrabyan, the methodology for studying the motivation of learning at the university of T.I. Ilyina, the method of professional self-esteem “Professional preparedness for pedagogical activity”, the methodology of E. Shein “Anchors of a career”, the methodology for studying the motivation of professional activity (K. Zamfir, A.A. Rean), a questionnaire for the level of subjective control, developed by E.F. Bazhin, E.A. Golynkina, A.M. Etkindom, questionnaires and questionnaires.

The main empirical studies were built and implemented as formative programs. In addition, given the phased nature of the formation of readiness for the profession of an educational psychologist, in the course of the experimental study, methods of vocational guidance and development, methods for assessing the quality of vocational training and its results were used.

3. Data processing methods:

a. Qualitative - general logical methods of analysis, synthesis, comparison;

b. Quantitative - graphical representation of the data, mathematical processing (depending on the nature of the data distribution, parametric and nonparametric methods were used to identify differences by the criterion? 2, t-student, U-test Mann-Whitney, correlation coefficient r). Mathematical processing of the obtained data was carried out using the statistical package SPSS - 14.0 for Windows.

The main stages of the study.
The study included four main stages.

At the first stage (1994-1998), the psychological and pedagogical foundations of professionalization were studied during the option period, mechanisms and technologies for the formation of orientation and motivational components of the readiness of future teachers and psychologists as part of pre-university training for high school students were developed and tested, and also introduced into practice psycho-diagnostic technology of professionally oriented selection of applicants.

At the second stage (1998-2002), a critical analysis of the theory and practice of professionalization of future educators and psychologists of education at the stage of vocational training at the university was carried out, the mechanisms of the formation of the operational component of readiness for professional activity were substantiated, and innovative educational technologies of educational and vocational training were tested students' activities, as well as included studies of foreign experience in the preparation of psychologists and their practical activities in the USA.

At the third stage (2002-2006), a conceptual model was tested for shaping the readiness of future educational psychologists for professional activities as part of a formative experiment, followed by organizational and substantive optimization of the experimental system and professionalization conditions at the pre-university and university stages.

At the fourth stage (2006-2009), the authorized scientific ideas and accumulated experience were systematized, the experimental results of the research were processed and analyzed, the scientific publications were prepared and the dissertation was prepared.

The base of the study. The empirical basis of the study was materials collected by the author during scientific and teaching activities in Russia (Mari El Republic; Moscow), near and far abroad (Republic of Tajikistan; USA).

The results and conclusions presented in the work were obtained with the involvement of more than 3,000 participants at various stages of the study, including applicants and students of the Mari State Pedagogical Institute. N.K. Krupskaya (MarGPI) and Mari State University (MarSU), students of specialized classes, as well as university professors, heads and psychologists of educational institutions of Yoshkar-Ola, Kozmodemyansk, Volzhsk, etc. The analysis included experimental data 1427 protocols were adopted, of which 468 are related to the formative phase of the study.

The reliability and validity of the results are provided by the initial theoretical and methodological positions and the logic of the study, using empirical data obtained in representative samples, and the presence of control groups, a combination of qualitative and quantitative analysis using methods of mathematical statistics, consistent intermediate and main results, duration and reproducibility research, the effectiveness of the implementation of the results in the profession tional training.

The scientific novelty of the study is determined by the totality of the formulated provisions and the results obtained, containing a solution to the urgent and significant for modern pedagogical psychology problems of the formation of the readiness of educational psychologists for professional activities:

? A concept has been developed for the formation of the educational psychologist’s readiness for professional activity, based on the heterochronism of the development of the structural components of preparedness and consisting in the phased formation of its successive neoplasms during professional self-determination at the pre-university stage and professional training at the university stage, which gives the professionalization of the future educational psychologist a systematic subject-activity character.

? A psychological and pedagogical model of a system-continuous formation of a psychologist’s readiness for professional activity has been developed, providing organizational and substantive continuity and continuity of the initial stages of professionalization, as well as their relevance to the chosen activity. The model is represented by a set of interconnected goals, stages, content, methods and conditions of readiness formation.

? The structure of readiness for professional activity as an integral mental phenomenon formed by levels (subjective and objective), their corresponding types (psychological and special readiness), subspecies (personal, motivational, cognitive and theoretical, practical), components (orientational, motivational, personal, operational).

? The phased structure and content of the formation of readiness for the professional activity of the educational psychologist in the form of its successive neoplasms were revealed: readiness for professional choice and readiness for educational and professional activities are formed at the pre-university stage, willingness to perform activities at the university stage of professionalization.

? Described as a result of a systematic psychological analysis of the professional activities of the educational psychologist, the profession chart of this work in the form of models of activity and personality, which forms the basis of the modern professional standard of the educational psychologist.

? The psychological mechanisms of readiness formation at the pre-university and university stages of professionalization of the educational psychologist are revealed. The basic and partial mechanisms of the gradual formation of readiness for professional activity have been experimentally confirmed: heterochronism of the structural components of preparedness, congruence and reflection of professional ideas, self-designing of professional development, transformation of acquired knowledge and skills into competencies.

? Ten types of key competencies of an educational psychologist and the features of their development by a graduate and a psychologist with experience, which are presented in the form of two profiles, are identified and characterized, which represent an expert readiness profile that reflects the threshold level of development of an educational psychologist's competencies for starting an independent activity; The expert competency profile reflects the basic level of competency development of a specialist adapted to the profession.

? Two groups of psychological and pedagogical technologies of readiness formation at the pre-university and university stages - educational and monitoring, including developing, training, diagnostic and certification forms were developed and tested.

? Qualitative differences in the readiness of future psychologists of education have been established: among students in the conditions of a well-grounded concept, the readiness for professional activity is significantly higher than the level of readiness of graduates of the traditional training paradigm and corresponds to the expert profile of readiness, while the competencies of future psychologists in the education of the control group are developed below the level necessary for a beginner independent activity to a specialist.

The theoretical significance of the study is characterized at three levels, which determine the place of the new knowledge received in a number of known. The level of specification is presented: the results of the systematization of scientific knowledge undertaken in the work on readiness for professional activity, its structure and types; clarification of the role and place of readiness for professional activity among other phenomena of professionalization and related concepts (competence, professionalism); the models of activity and personality of the educational psychologist described in the dissertation. These results contribute to the streamlining of the conceptual apparatus of psychological science, as well as contribute to solving the urgent task of developing a modern professional standard for the education psychologist.

The level of additions is characterized by: the selected criteria of readiness for the professional activity of an educational psychologist and a description of his competencies; a description of the phased structure of the formation of components and successive neoplasms of readiness for professional activity; identified set of mechanisms for the formation of readiness at the pre-university and university stages. These results complement the developing theory of competency-based approach in the framework of specialized training and vocational education, can be used in the development of the federal state educational standard of the 3rd generation in the psychological and pedagogical direction.

The level of transformation is represented by the concept of the formation of the readiness of the future educational psychologist for professional activity and the psychological and pedagogical model of its implementation, which are qualitatively different from the traditional paradigm of professional training, and contribute to the modernization of modern education and contribute to resolving the contradiction between the high requirements of the social order and the insufficient level of readiness of university graduates. Of particular importance is the developed concept and model of the formation of readiness for the profession of an educational psychologist in the context of the transition to a two-stage system of vocational education, involving the preparation of bachelors who are ready for independent practical work in four years of study. The innovative nature of the proposed approach is ensured, firstly, by adapting the domestic experience of vocational training to modern educational conditions and requirements, and secondly, by a complementary combination of classical and modern achievements of the theory and practice of vocational education, including foreign ones.

The mechanisms of subjective-active mastery of the profession of an educational psychologist, revealed and implemented in psychological and pedagogical technologies, contribute to the further development of such relevant areas of modern pedagogical psychology as the psychology of specialized and professional education.

The practical significance of the dissertation research is of industry-wide and private practice. The industry-wide level of practical significance of the results is that they contribute to the achievement of a new modern quality of professional psychological and pedagogical education. The developed and empirically tested model of the formation of the educational psychologist’s readiness for professional activity solves the urgent problem of optimizing the system, content and methods of modern education at the level of specialized training for high school students and professional training of specialists in psychological and pedagogical direction.

The psychological significance of pedagogical technologies developed during the study is of practical importance for the modern practice of vocational training, which is in great need of modern technologies for solving educational problems: educational and developing technology for two-year specialized training of future educational psychologists at the senior educational level; psycho-diagnostic technology of complementary professionally oriented selection of applicants ready to master the profession of educational psychologist; technologies of advanced additional educational training of future psychologists and the subjective organization of educational and professional activities at the university stage of professionalization, as well as an improved technology of final state certification of graduates. The listed technologies form the basis for the further development of innovative educational programs for specialized, professional training and advanced training of psychological and pedagogical personnel, as well as monitoring and evaluation of the results of their training, including professionally oriented selection and certification procedures.

A private practice level of significance of the research results consists in professional educational programs for students of the specialty “pedagogy and psychology” with specializations “practical psychology”, “psychology of management” and students of the specialty “preschool pedagogy and developed by the author and with the participation of the author and implemented at MarGPI and MarSU Psychology ”with a specialization in“ Practical Psychology for Children ”.

Educational-methodical complexes were developed and the following disciplines were introduced into the educational process:

? specialized training for senior pupils - “Psychology”, “Psychological workshop of self-knowledge”, “Training of professional (psychological and pedagogical) self-determination”, “Introduction to the psychological and pedagogical profession”, “Training of readiness for educational and professional activities at the university”;

? training of educational psychologists - “Case study for psychologists”, “Fundamentals of the organization of student scientific work”, “Child psychology”, “Introduction to the profession of a child practical psychologist”, “Methodology of psychological work with children”, “Psychology of prognostic activity”, etc. .

Created and used for many years:

? a set of effective educational programs for practice-oriented student preparation (case study, practice, research);

? a set of variable introductory interview programs with applicants from the faculty of pedagogy and psychology (technology of creative entrance exam, career guidance interview and selection);

? programs and recommendations for the preparation and conduct of final state certification of graduates.
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