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Professions and specialties arose in the history of mankind as a result of the social division of labor.

In accordance with this, in society there are various types and places of work, positions. Each such post not only has traditionally established equipment, equipment, but is also characterized by a system of rights, duties, norms of behavior, requirements for knowledge, skills, and culture of the employee.

A position can exist without a person, i.e. to be vacant, unoccupied. “Thus, in society objectively, really there is a system of posts. Each such position, with the entire system of its requirements, can be called a specialty, it must be mastered, and for this it is necessary to study. When a person has mastered a specialty, that is, he has acquired the amount of relevant knowledge , skills, they say: he has a specialty.

A specialty is a limited area of ​​application of physical and spiritual forces of a person necessary for society (due to the division of labor), which gives him the opportunity to receive the necessary means of subsistence and development in return for the work (expended) by him.

A profession is a group of related specialties.
For example, there is no turner at all, there is a carousel turner, a boring machine, a revolving machine, a universal turner, etc. All these specialties are theoretically combined into a group designated as the "turning profession". There is no teacher at all, but there is a teacher of mathematics, a teacher of the Russian language, etc., united in the group "pedagogical profession" (Klimov, 1974, 1990).

Profession is a multi-valued concept. It is characterized by several main aspects. Profession is:

1) the type of activity and the system of labor functions performed by a person;

2) a socially recognized or legally fixed labor post;

3) the presence of a specific training system;

4) the presence of a certain qualification, the experience of a specialist, the psychological suitability of a person for business;

5) the community of people engaged in a certain occupation.
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