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Diagnostics of creativity and originality
Torrance Creativity Test
Brief test. Curly shape.
An abridged version of the figurative (figurative) battery of P. Torrance’s creativity test is the task “Finish the drawing”.
The task “Finish the drawing” is the second subtest of the curly battery of tests of creative thinking of P. Torrance.
The test can be used to study the creative giftedness of children, starting from preschool age (5–6 years) and to graduation classes of the school (17–18 years). The subjects must give answers to the tasks of these tests in the form of drawings and signatures to them. If the children cannot write or write very slowly, the experimenter or his assistants should help them sign the drawings. In this case, it is necessary to strictly follow the child’s plan.
Preparation for testing. Before presenting the test, the experimenter must fully read the instructions and carefully consider all aspects of the work. Tests do not allow any changes and additions, as this changes the reliability and validity of test indicators.
It is necessary to avoid the use of the words "test", "exam", "test" in all explanations and instructions. If the need arises, it is recommended to use the words: exercises, drawings, pictures, etc. During testing, it is unacceptable to create a disturbing and tense atmosphere of an exam, test, competition. On the contrary, one should strive to create a friendly and calm atmosphere of warmth, comfort, trust, encourage the imagination and curiosity of children, and stimulate the search for alternative answers. Testing should take place in the form of an exciting game. It is very important to achieve reliable and objective results.
It is necessary to provide all students with test items, pencils or pens. All unnecessary should be removed. The experimenter needs to have instructions, a test sample, and a clock or stopwatch.
Simultaneous testing should not be carried out in large groups of students. The optimal group size is 15–35 people, that is, no more than one class.
For younger children, the size of the groups should be reduced to 5-10 people, and for preschoolers it is preferable to conduct individual testing. During testing, the child should sit at the table alone or with an assistant experimenter.
Test run time is 10 minutes. Together with preparation, reading instructions, distribution of sheets, etc. for testing, you need to take 15-20 minutes.
When testing preschoolers and primary schoolchildren, experimenters should have a sufficient number of assistants to assist in drawing signatures for drawings.
Before handing out sheets with tasks, the experimenter must explain to the children what they will do, arouse their interest in the tasks and create motivation for their implementation. To do this, you can use the following text, which allows various modifications depending on specific conditions:
"Guys! It seems to me that you will enjoy the work ahead of you. This work will help us find out how well you can invent new things and solve different problems. You will need all your imagination and ability to think. I hope that you give room to your imagination and you will like it. ”
If the curly test needs to be repeated, then students can explain it as follows: “We want to find out how your abilities to come up with a new one, your imagination and problem solving ability have changed. You know that we measure our height and weight at regular intervals to find out how much we have grown and recovered. We do the same to find out how your abilities have changed. It is very important that this is an accurate measurement, so try to show everything that you are capable of. ”
Instructions for the test items. After the preliminary instructions, you should give out the sheets with the tasks and make sure that each subject indicates the last name, first name and date in the corresponding box. Preschoolers and primary school children need help in indicating this information. In this case, it would be better if you enter the data in advance and distribute to the children sheets with already filled in columns.
After these preparations, you can start reading the following instructions: “You have to complete fascinating tasks. All of them will require imagination from you in order to come up with new ideas and combine them in various ways. When completing each task, try to come up with something new and unusual that no one else in your group (class) can come up with. Then try to complement and complete your idea so that you get an interesting story-picture.
The time to complete the task is limited, so try to use it well. Work fast, but take your time. If you have any questions, raise your hand silently - and I will come to you and give the necessary explanations. ”
The test task is formulated as follows:
“On these two pages unfinished figures are drawn. If you add additional lines to them, you will get interesting objects or plot pictures. This task takes 10 minutes. Try to come up with a picture or story that no one else can come up with. Make it complete and interesting, add new ideas to it. Come up with an interesting name for each picture and write it below the picture. ”(This instruction must be presented strictly in the text, not allowing any changes. Even small modifications of the instruction require repeated standardization and validation of the text.
If students worry that they don’t have time to complete the task on time, reassure them by saying the following:
“You all work differently. Some manage to draw all the drawings very quickly, and then return to them and add some details. Others manage to draw only a few, but from each drawing they create very complex stories. Continue to work as you like, as you prefer. ”
If the children do not ask questions after the instruction, you can proceed with the assignment. If the instruction raises questions, try to answer them by repeating the instructions in more understandable words for them. Avoid giving examples or illustrations of possible sample answers! This leads to a decrease in originality and, in some cases, the total number of responses. Strive to maintain a friendly, warm, and relaxed relationship with your children.
Although the instructions indicate that the tasks include two pages, some children overlook this fact and do not find the second page. Therefore, you should specially remind the children of the second page with the tasks.
You need to carefully monitor the time using a stopwatch.
After 10 minutes, the tasks are stopped and the sheets are quickly assembled. If the children could not write the names for their drawings, find out from them these names immediately after testing. Otherwise, you will not be able to reliably evaluate them.
For this, it is convenient to have several assistants, which is especially important when testing elementary students and preschoolers.
Measurement and processing of results. An important condition for the high reliability of the test is a careful study of the index of assessment of test indicators and the use of the standards as a basis for judgments.
1. Read the manual. You should be clearly aware of the concept of creative thinking of P. Torrance: the content of indicators of fluency, flexibility, originality and thoroughness of developing ideas as characteristics of this process.
2. First you need to determine whether the answer should be counted, that is, whether it is relevant to the task. Those answers that do not correspond to the tasks are not taken into account. Answers in which the basic condition of the task is not fulfilled - to use the source element are considered irrelevant. These are the answers in which the subject's drawing is in no way connected with incomplete figures.
3. Processing responses. Each relevant idea (i.e., a figure that includes the original element) should be assigned to one of the 83 categories of answers. Using these lists, determine answer category numbers and points for their originality. Write them in the appropriate boxes.
If the originality of the answers is rated 0 or 1 point, the category of answers can be determined from list 1. This list includes the least original answers for each of the test figures. For more original answers (with an originality of 2 points), list No. 2 has been compiled. This list contains categories common to all test figures.
Then the points for the elaboration of each answer are determined, which are recorded in the column allocated for these indicators of the assignment. Indicators of the categories of originality and elaboration of answers are recorded on the form in the line corresponding to the number of the figure. Gaps (absence) of answers are recorded there.
The fluency score for the test can be obtained directly from the number of the last answer if there were no gaps or irrelevant answers. Otherwise, you should calculate the total number of responses taken into account and write this number in the corresponding column. To determine your measure of flexibility, cross out duplicate answer category numbers and count the remaining numbers. The total score for originality is determined by the addition of all points without exception in this column. Similarly, the total indicator of the development of answers is determined.
Checking the reliability of measurements. From time to time, it is recommended to compare data from our own test processing with data from the processing of the same tests by a more experienced experimenter. All inconsistencies should be identified and discussed. It is recommended to calculate the correlation coefficients between the indicators obtained by two researchers when processing 20–40 protocols. Another way of checking reliability can be repeated processing of experimental materials by the same researcher after one or several weeks. When using forms for processing, these types of controls will not take much time.
Test score indicator. The index includes data obtained for 500 students in Moscow schools in 1994. The age of the subjects is from 6 to 17 years.
Fluency. This indicator is determined by counting the number of completed figures. The maximum score is 10.
Flexibility. This indicator is determined by the number of different categories of answers. To determine the category, both the figures themselves and their names can be used (which sometimes does not coincide). The following is list number 2, including 99% of the responses. For those answers that cannot be included in any of the categories of this list, new categories should be applied with their designation “XI”, “X2”, etc. However, this is rarely required.
Categories of answers, rated 0 or 1 point for originality, are much more convenient to determine from list No. 1 separately for each stimulus figure.
Originality. The maximum score is 2 points for non-obvious answers with a frequency of less than 2%, the minimum is 0 points for answers with a frequency of 5% or more, and 1 point is counted for answers that occur in 2–4.9% of cases. Data on the assessment of the category and originality of the answer are given in list No. 1 for each figure separately. Therefore, it is advisable to begin the interpretation of the results using this list.
Bonus points for the originality of answers in which the subject combines several source figures into a single picture. Torrance considers this a manifestation of a high level of creative ability, since such answers are quite rare. Torrance considers it necessary to award additional points for originality when combining the original figures into blocks: combining two figures - 2 points; combining 3-5 drawings - 5 points; the combination of 6-10 drawings - 10 points. These award points are added to the total points for originality throughout the assignment.
Elaboration. In assessing the thoroughness of developing answers, scores are given for each significant detail (idea) that supplements the initial stimulus figure, both within the boundaries of its contour and beyond. In this case, however, the basic, simplest answer must be significant, otherwise its development is not evaluated.
One point is given for:
- every significant detail of the general answer. Moreover, each class of parts is evaluated once and is not taken into account when repeating. Each additional part is marked with a dot or a cross once;
- color, if it complements the basic idea of the answer;
- special shading (but not for each line, but for the general idea);
- shadows, volume, color;
- decoration, if it makes sense in itself,
- each variation of design (except for purely quantitative repetitions), significant in relation to the main answer. For example, identical objects of different sizes can convey the idea of space;
- rotation of the picture by 90 ° or more, unusual angle (inside view, for example), going beyond the scope of the task for most of the picture;
- every detail in the title over and above the required minimum. If the line divides the figure into two significant parts, the points are calculated in both parts of the figure and summarized. If the line indicates a specific object - a seam, belt, scarf, etc., then it is rated 1 point.
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