home
about the project
Medical news
For authors
Licensed books on medicine
<< Previous Next >>

EXPERIMENTS IN PSYCHOLOGY

The next area of ​​psychology is called experimentation. If, at the mention of this word, people start to fidget nervously, recalling the twitching of innocent volunteers under the influence of current, you can calm them down and explain (if possible with a certain degree of condescension) that such experiments were always rare and are not currently practiced.

Modern psychological experiments are more like trying to develop cosmic speed by pressing buttons on a computer or by rating various body odors. Despite the absence of hissing electrodes and various cones, the results of such experiments underlie most of the provisions of modern psychology.

Psychology needs experimentation, just as book publishing needs manuscripts, and medicine needs corpses. Unfortunately, it is impossible to guarantee an excellent experiment, as well as to provide a printable literary work or an ideal body. As a rule, in psychology three types of research are used, and only one of them is a “true” experiment.

Questioning

This is hardly the most fascinating form of research. Most often, psychologists compose various kinds of questionnaires, and subjects should answer the questions they enter. This method has significant drawbacks, since one has to rely completely on the utmost honesty of respondents who are unlikely to have the ability of a Buddhist monk to introspect. Our tip: ignore the obvious survey-related issues.

They are so insignificant for psychology that very few specialists pay attention to them. Your role as an explicit expert in this area is to remain silent.

Most tests use the so-called Likert scale. This is usually a line with numbers printed on it. The test subject must put a cross in front of the mark characterizing his attitude to each statement of the test. The psychologist, of course, must ensure that the questions are written in clear language without ambiguity, for example: "Occasionally it happens that I often wish that my uncertainty was less definite." I strongly disagree 0-1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8-9-10 completely agree.

The scale includes numbers from 0 to 10, but an enthusiastic volunteer who wants to show an extreme degree of agreement can draw up the eleventh division.

Correlation study

This type of research was created to show that people who are inclined to do or experience one thing will also do or experience something else. For example, one well-known study proved that in the houses where children with high mental abilities live, there are more books. The problem is uncertainty - what came first? Psychologists want to find out what is primary here: either the parents of gifted children are also smart, so they buy a lot of books, or reading books develops high mental abilities in children.
You may be surprised, but the latter is unlikely, especially if this is a collection of novels by Jeffrey Archer.

"True" experiment

If the results of 99% of psychological research are either obvious or uninformative (or both), only 1% of classical experiments give interesting and unexpected results. They look like good tricks with revealing a secret in which the psychologist has to skillfully bluff.

If you have a couple of classic experiments behind you, you can consider yourself an authority. The first was created by Stanley Milgram in the 1960s. In a fabricated experiment, he investigated human obedience, the willingness to follow someone’s orders, an exciting proof of the psychologist’s ability to control people. The experiment was presented to participants as a study of the effect of pain on memory. The test subject was ordered to dial the number on the device, from this action the second participant in the experiment, who was in the next room, received an electric shock and screamed in pain. However, the subject did not know that the second participant was an artist. 65% of the subjects went all the way until the “student” uttered the last sob or lost consciousness. The conclusion (which will have to be remembered due to its widespread prevalence in society) is as follows: submission to authority outweighs the natural ability for sympathy - or psychologists should not be trusted.

The second classic study is also a lie for the good. In the early 1950s, Solomon Ash developed a simple test (a rarity in psychology). Volunteers were asked to evaluate which of the three lines of different lengths is equal to the length of the fourth. Almost everyone correctly completed the task. But when the participant was asked to do the same in a group of other subjects who chose the wrong answer, he agreed with them. Naturally, everyone in the group, except for the subject, were decoy ducks. Conclusion (should sound as penetrating as possible): the individual perception of the world can be influenced by other people. Or perhaps that size estimate was a moot point.

During any lively discussion, it should be remembered that whatever idea you put forward can almost always be confirmed by experiment. If you and your knowledge are impudently tested, approach this creatively. Mistily refer to something that cannot be verified, and let your words sound as scientifically as possible. Think up a source of information, say a special issue of the international almanac of subconscious biosocial psychometry (even if it does not exist, the audience will never guess about it anyway). This trick is the academic equivalent of stating that at the beginning of 1961 you saw the Rolling Stones sign their first performance contract in the back room of the East End bar.
<< Previous Next >>
= Skip to textbook content =

EXPERIMENTS IN PSYCHOLOGY

  1. Types of psychological experiments. Quasi-Experiment in Psychology
    Types of experiments in psychology. Foundations of typologies. Experimentation in the school of K. Levin. Quasi-experimental research schemes in psychology: differences in the content of tested hypotheses, forms of control and logic of conclusions. Quasi-experimental method in terms of limitations in the forms of experimental control. The difference between intergroup experiments and quasi-experiments on the principles of selection in
  2. Observation and experiment as the main research methods in developmental psychology
    The main research methods of developmental psychology and developmental psychology are methods of collecting facts, ascertaining trends, and the dynamics of mental development that unfolds over time. At the initial stage of the development of child psychology (in the second half of the XIX - beginning of the X X centuries), it was primarily a method of observation. Researchers (including biologists and psychologists T. Tideman, I. Ten,
  3. Experiment in acmeology
    Plan 1. An experiment as a research method. 2. Types of experiment. 3. The peculiarity of the experiment in acmeology. Key words: experiment in acmeology, independent and dependent variables in acmeological research. - an experiment in acmeology - a research method in which a psychologist (acmeologist) varies the conditions of becoming a specialist and the nature of the emerging qualitative
  4. Experiment in acmeology
    Plan 1. An experiment as a research method. 2. Types of experiment. 3. The peculiarity of the experiment in acmeology. Key words: experiment in acmeology, independent and dependent variables in acmeological research. - an experiment in acmeology - a research method in which a psychologist (acmeologist) varies the conditions of becoming a specialist and the nature of the emerging qualitative
  5. Types of Experiment
    Consider the use of different types and forms of experiment in acmeological research. The types of experiment may differ depending on the purpose, content of hypotheses, and the conditions of the experiment. The natural experiment substantiated by A.F. Lazursky is most favorable for the tasks of acmeological research. It consists in approaching the natural conditions of life and activity of the subject in which
  6. Types of Experiment
    Consider the use of different types and forms of experiment in acmeological research. The types of experiment may differ depending on the purpose, content of hypotheses, and the conditions of the experiment. The natural experiment substantiated by A.F. is most favorable for the tasks of acmeological research. Lazursky. It consists in approaching the natural conditions of life and activity of the subject in which
  7. The basics of planning a psychological experiment
    A thought experiment and the allocation of an empirically verified dependence. Mental images of experiments and planning as a control of threats to validity. Representativeness of experimental models and variables. Planning is substantive and formal. The connection between the choice of a plan and a theoretical understanding of the problem (examples of plans in the study of motivation according to H. Heckhausen). Idea of
  8. Experiment as a research method
    Acmeology as a relatively young science is developing its own methodological tools - a set of methods and methodological techniques that are adequate to its subject and tasks. One of the directions of this work is the creation of experimental acmeology, involving the use of experimental methods in acmeological research. The subject of study in acmeology is the process
  9. Experiment as a research method
    Acmeology as a relatively young science is developing its own methodological tools - a set of methods and methodological techniques that are adequate to its subject and tasks. One of the directions of this work is the creation of experimental acmeology, involving the use of experimental methods in acmeological research. The subject of study in acmeology is the process
  10. An experiment as a method of empirical research
    The experiment involves the active intervention of the researcher in the subject's activity in order to create conditions in which a psychological fact is revealed. The researcher deliberately creates and changes the conditions under which the human activity proceeds, sets goals and judges the psychological characteristics of the test subject based on the results. Allocate laboratory and natural
  11. An experiment as a normative method of empirical testing of psychological hypotheses
    The objectives of psychological research: theoretical, applied, practical. The development of experimental psychology and the differentiation of concepts of the method and research technique. Method as a way to collect data. An experiment as one of the ways of knowing reality and as a means of “limiting” theorizing, as a normative logic of reflection and as an art of verification
  12. Experiment method
    An experiment in a profession is also used to verify a pre-compiled psychogram. For this purpose, several groups of specialists with different professional success stand out. In each group, with the help of special devices or forms, the qualities recognized in the psychogram as professionally important are checked. The results of the study are compared with indicators of professional
  13. Observations from animal experiments
    New impulses were given by experiments on animals that were started in the 30s. Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis was caused in animals. As a result of the introduction of myelin first, then the fragments of myelin (the so-called main myelin protein), plaques formed in the central nervous system during this experimentally caused disease in the central nervous system
  14. Facts - the bread of science (my experiments)
    At one time, I also thought about this issue, as a result of which a new concept of healing nutrition based on irrefutable scientific facts was born, which this book is dedicated to. But before I sat down at my desk to start working on it, I conducted a series of my own experiments that showed how little theorists of balanced nutrition cost.
  15. Correlation of theory, experiment and practice in the process of military psychological research
    This problem reflects the implementation by military psychologists of the most important principle of psychology - the principle of the unity of theory, experiment and practice, the significance of which is shown by B.F. Lomov. This principle is briefly formulated by K.K. Platonov: "... An experiment, being substantiated by a theory, verifies and refines it and, together with it being verified by practice as the highest criterion of truth, serves it, improving it." Violation
  16. Experiments on the practical intelligence of the child
    The beginning of a new and fruitful series of studies was laid by the well-known works of W. Köhler on humanoid monkeys. As we know, Koehler from time to time compared the reactions of a child in experiments with the reactions of chimpanzees in a similar situation. This turned out to be fatal for all later researchers. Direct comparison of the child’s practical intelligence with similar actions by monkeys
  17. Problems of computerization of psychological experiments
    Computerization of techniques as a "technician" and forms of control. The possibilities of using a computer at different stages of the study. A computer in teaching psychological experimentation. Special problems of the "psychology of computerization" and the practice of using computers as a means of activity
Medical portal "MedguideBook" © 2014-2019
info@medicine-guidebook.com