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Ethical principles and rules of the psychologist

Krylov A.A., Yuryev A.I.

(In the book: “Workshop on General and Experimental Psychology” / Edited by A. Krylov, S. A. Manichev, 2nd ed., St. Petersburg, Moscow, Kharkov, Minsk, 2000. P. 545-552).

The modern level of psychological science and practice, the increased degree of their influence on social and economic processes, urgently require special regulation of the actions of psychologists, both in the process of research and in the course of the practical implementation of their recommendations. The wrong actions of psychologists may not improve, but worsen the psychological climate in the team, aggravate the condition and position of the person being consulted, and ultimately compromise psychological science.

Improving the effectiveness of psychologists in various sectors of the national economy, education and health care, eliminating cases of discrediting psychology requires the introduction of ethical principles and rules of a psychologist. This means that today the level of professionalism of a psychologist is determined not only by his theoretical knowledge, methodological and methodological training, but also by the ability to build his activities taking into account ethical standards.

In the future, it is obvious that domestic psychologists will have to introduce into their activity the same strict regulation that our foreign colleagues adhere to practically all over the world. The introduction of certification of psychologists working in the scientific and practical field, the issuance of licenses for psychological practice are on the agenda. A prerequisite for this is the knowledge and observance of the ethical principles of the psychologist.

Responsibilities and rights of a psychologist. The psychologist should take an active part in resolving issues of scientific, social, industrial life:

1. To increase labor productivity and product quality by means of psychology, to reduce material, energy, time and labor costs.

2. Promote psychological means to introduce social, technical and other innovations.

3. They will improve the quality of training of specialists through the use of psychological career guidance, professional advice, professional selection, vocational training and psychoprophylaxis.

4. To achieve a decrease in staff turnover, the formation of stable collectives, and to regulate population migration, based on the psychological laws of these phenomena.

5. To seek a return to an active working and social life of people in need of psychological rehabilitation, psychological counseling on professional issues and on issues of personal and public life.

6. Strive to achieve satisfaction among workers and specialists with their work through psychological optimization of environmental parameters, equipment, and technological processes.

7. Predict the socio-psychological consequences of social, scientific and technical innovations.

8. To develop the theoretical and methodological support of psychological science.

9. Be guided in their activities by ethical principles and rules and the law “do no harm”.

The psychologist has the right, applying the methods of psychological science:

1. Receive confidential information about the psychological properties, characteristics and conditions of people acting as subjects.

2. Formulate recommendations for optimizing the activities of workers and specialists and distributing them among jobs.

3. Participate in the work of the commission to discuss and agree on projects, charters, laws, etc.

4. To conduct a study of the causes of incidents, accidents, various kinds of events and report the results at meetings of the commissions to investigate them.

5. Take part in improving the methods of education, training and put them into practice.

6. Participate in the work of admissions, qualification, certification commissions as their member.

7. To study and seek, if necessary, changes in the operational characteristics of equipment, parameters of technological processes, the environment and the working environment.

8. Use the materials of their work in the process of individual psychological counseling at enterprises, schools, consultations, and medical institutions, report them at conferences, congresses and in print.

9. Develop new methods of work of a psychologist and receive copyright on them with all the legal consequences arising from this.

II. Organization of psychologist

Subjects and objects of psychological activity.

1. A person with a special psychological education, confirmed by a state diploma and representing a research, educational, industrial, medical, cooperative or other organization, acts as a psychologist.

2. The customer is the head of a state or cooperative organization or a private person who has turned to a psychologist for psychological advice, familiar with the principles and rules of the psychologist and agree with them. The customer can be either the psychologist himself, if he is entrusted with the implementation of psychocorrectional effects on the basis of the results of the study, or the subject himself, if he intends to carry out self-improvement in one form or another based on the results of the study (auto-training, etc.).

3. The person who agreed to be the object of psychological research, either in personal, or in scientific, or in production, or in social interests, acts as a test subject. Subject - a symbol of a consultant, or trainee, or trainee, or patient, or selected, or certified, or researched in the interests of human science.

4. The results of the study of the psychologist are theoretical, methodological, experimental material, fixed in the form of reporting documents of the accepted sample, fully, reliably and objectively reflecting the subject from the point of view of the customer’s tasks. The results of the study, knowingly or unintentionally made public, acquire the character of an independent component of psychological activity, the positive and negative consequences of which should be foreseen and regulated.

Subject-object relations in psychological activity

1. The psychologist receives an order from the customer, draws up a technical assignment for the study (work) in a mutually agreed form, agrees on the distribution of rights and duties between the psychologist, the customer and the subject, and on mutual obligations in joint activities.

2. The psychologist selects theoretical concepts adequate to the tasks of psychological activity, working methods, specific research methods and working with the subject, methods of processing primary data to form the results of the study.

3. The psychologist performs direct work with the subject in the form of conversation, questionnaires, interviews, testing, electrophysiological studies, etc., or indirectly in the form of a biographical method, observation method, etc.

4. The psychologist processes the primary materials, interprets them, discusses the data obtained with competent colleagues, formulates conclusions and conclusions on factors of interest to the customer, affecting the subject's production, training, and personal life.

5. The psychologist transmits to the customer his conclusions and recommendations regarding the subject and answers questions from the customer, based on the results of the study in the form of a written document, oral communication, publication in print.

6. The customer applies the recommendations of the psychologist to the subject in the form of measures of psycho-correctional, psychological and pedagogical, educational, administrative impact, changes the ergonomic and engineering-psychological factors of the working environment, equipment parameters, working conditions with respect to the characteristics of the subject. In many cases, the psychologist himself applies to the subject the recommendations developed by him on the basis of preliminary research (psychotherapy, counseling, training, etc.).

Sh. The content of the principles and rules of the psychologist.

The ethics of the work of a psychologist is based on universal moral and moral values. The prerequisites for the free and comprehensive development of the personality and its respect, the rapprochement of people, the creation of a just humane, prosperous society, are decisive for the psychologist.
The psychologist’s ethical principles and rules of work formulate the conditions under which his professionalism, the humanity of his actions, the respect of the people with whom he works, and the real benefits of his efforts are preserved and strengthened.

1. The principle of non-damage to the test subject requires the psychologist to organize his work so that neither its process nor its results cause harm to the subject’s health, condition, or social position. The implementation of the principle is governed by the rules of relations between the psychologist and the test subject and the customer and the selection of adequate research and communication methods.

• The rule of mutual respect of the psychologist and the subject. The psychologist proceeds from respect for personal dignity, rights, freedoms, proclaimed and guaranteed by the Constitution of the Russian Federation. Work with the subject is allowed only after obtaining the subject’s consent to participate in it, after notifying him of the purpose of the study, of the methods used and how to use the information received.

• The safety rule for the subject of the applied techniques. The psychologist applies only research methods that are not dangerous to health, the condition of the subject, do not present him in a false, distorted light in the results of the study, do not give information about his psychological properties and features that are not related to specific, coordinated psychological tasks research.

• The rule to prevent incorrect actions of the customer regarding the subject. The psychologist formulates his recommendations, organizes the storage, use and publication of the research results in such a way as to exclude their use outside those tasks that were agreed between the psychologist and the customer and which could worsen the position of the subject. The psychologist informs the subject about the nature of the information transmitted to the customer and does this only after obtaining the consent of the subject.

2. The principle of psychologist’s competence requires a psychologist to tackle only those issues on which he is professionally knowledgeable and for the solution of which he has practical working methods and is endowed with the appropriate rights and authorities to perform psycho-correctional or other influences. The implementation of the principle is ensured by the rules governing the psychologist’s relationship with the customer, subject, and research results.

The rule of cooperation between the psychologist and the customer.

• The psychologist is obliged to notify the customer about the real possibilities of modern psychological science in the field of questions posed by the customer, about the limit of his competence and the limits of his capabilities. The psychologist must inform the customer about the principles and rules of psychological activity and obtain the consent of the customer to be guided by them when using methods and materials of a psychological nature.

• The rule of professional communication between the psychologist and the subject.

• The psychologist must be familiar with the methods of psychodiagnostic conversation, observation, psychological and pedagogical influence at a level that would allow, on the one hand, to solve the task as efficiently as possible, and on the other, to maintain the subject’s feeling of sympathy and trust, satisfaction from communication with the psychologist. If the subject is sick, then the use of any methods of research and prevention is permissible only with the permission of the doctor or with the consent of other persons representing the interests of the subject. A psychologist can carry out psychotherapeutic work with a patient only in coordination with the attending physician and with specialization in medical psychology.

• The rule of validity of the results of a study of a psychologist.

• The psychologist formulates the results of the study in terms of concepts accepted in psychological science, confirming his findings by presenting the primary materials of the study, their mathematical and statistical processing and the positive conclusion of competent colleagues. When solving any psychological problems, a study is carried out, always based on a preliminary analysis of the literature data on the question posed.

3. The principle of impartiality of the psychologist does not allow a biased attitude towards the subject, formulating conclusions and carrying out psychological actions that contradict scientific evidence, no matter what subjective impression the subject makes, type, legal and social status, no matter how positive or negative the customer’s attitude towards the subject . The principle is satisfied if the rules governing the effect on the results of the study of the personality of the subject, the psychologist and the customer are fulfilled.

• The rule of adequacy of the techniques used by the psychologist.

• The psychologist can apply techniques that are adequate to the objectives of the study, age, gender, education, condition of the subject, experimental conditions. Methods, in addition, must necessarily be standardized, normalized, reliable and valid, adapted to the contingent of subjects.

• The rule of scientificness of the results of a study of a psychologist. The psychologist must apply data processing and interpretation methods that have received scientific recognition and are not dependent on his scientific predilections, social hobbies, personal sympathies for subjects of a certain type, social status, or professional activity. The results of the study should only be what any other researcher will certainly receive the same specialization and the same qualifications if he re-interprets the primary data that the psychologist presents.

• The rule of balanced information of a psychological nature, transmitted to the customer by a psychologist.

• The psychologist transmits to the customer the results of the study in terms and concepts that are known to the customer, in the form of specific recommendations that do not allow and do not lead to their speculation, examination of the subject’s personality outside of the tasks that were set for the psychologist. The psychologist is guided only by the interests of the case and does not transmit any information that could worsen the situation of the test subject, customer, team in which they collaborate.

4. The principle of confidentiality of the psychologist’s activity means that the material obtained by the psychologist in the process of his work with the subject on the basis of trusting relationships is not subject to conscious or accidental disclosure outside the agreed conditions and must be presented in such a way that he could not compromise either the test person or the customer , nor a psychologist, nor psychological science. The principle is fulfilled if the relevant rules govern the exchange of psychological information between the customer and the psychologist, between the customer and the subject.

• Rule of encoding information of a psychological nature. The psychologist is obliged on all materials of a psychological nature, from protocols to the final report, to indicate not the last names, first names, and patronymics of the subjects, but the code assigned to them, consisting of a number of numbers and letters. The document, which indicates the surname, name, patronymic of the subject, and the corresponding code, known only to the psychologist, is executed in a single copy, stored separately from the experimental materials, inaccessible to outsiders and transmitted to the customer according to the act, if necessary, according to the working conditions.

• The rule of controlled storage of psychological information.

• The psychologist must first agree with the customer a list of persons who gain access to materials characterizing the subject, the place and conditions of their storage, the purpose of their use and the timing of destruction.

• The rule of correct use of psychological information. The psychologist must reach an agreement with the customer on the exclusion of accidental or deliberate communication to the subject of the results of his research, which may injure him, and create conditions for the implementation of this agreement. Information of a psychological nature about the subject should in no case be subject to open discussion, transfer or communication to anyone outside the forms and goals recommended by the psychologist.

4. The principle of informed consent requires that the psychologist, the customer and the subject be informed of the ethical principles and rules of psychological activity, the goals, means and intended results of psychological activity and take part in it voluntarily.
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