the main
about the project
Medicine news
To authors
Licensed books on medicine
<< Ahead Next >>

Formation of psychology as a separate science

Mental phenomena, as already noted, have long attracted the attention of scientists and thinkers, but only at the end of the XIX century, psychology becomes an independent science. In 1879, the German psychologist Wilhelm Wundt (1832–1920) founded the world's first laboratory of experimental psychology at the University of Leipzig. After 6 years, in 1885, the eminent Russian scientist Vladimir Mikhailovich Bekhterev (1857–1927) organized the first psychological laboratory in Russia at Kazan University.

The method of introspection was chosen as the main research method by Wundt, i.e. organized by special rules of self-observation. The purpose of the study is to obtain data on the structure of consciousness through the selection of its “pure” elements. This scientific direction was called structuralism. Wundt created an international school for the training of professional psychologists, which allowed the formation of an international organizational structure of psychological science.

Almost at the same time in the USA, William James (1842–1910) develops a direction called functionalism and declaring the function of mental processes in adapting to the environment to be the subject of a psychological study. Based on the evolutionary teachings of Charles Darwin, James argued the biological usefulness of the psyche and consciousness.

At the end of the XIX century. In the United States, a new scientific direction in psychology has emerged - behaviorism (from behavior (English) - behavior). It played an exceptional role in the development of psychological science, its experimental methods and links with practice. The emergence of this direction is associated with the names of Edward Thorndike (1874–1949) and John Watson (1878–1958). The work of the Russian physiologists Vladimir Mikhailovich Bekhterev, who created reflexology, and Ivan Petrovich Pavlov (1849–1936), who created the theory of the formation of a conditioned reflex, had a strong influence on the formation of behaviorism ideas.

The basic concept of behaviorism was based on the fact that the subject of psychology is behavior. Behavior is expressed in certain actions, actions, reactions and depends on external influence (stimulus). Thus, it is possible to compare the characteristics of the stimulus and the behavior characteristics. By specifying certain characteristics of the stimulus, one can obtain the intended effect and, if desired, consolidate this relationship.
In their animal studies, behaviorists have demonstrated that learning in many cases can be the result of trial and error in trying to solve an animal’s problem.

Later, the representative of the so-called neo-behaviorist Edward Tolman (1886–1959) improved J. Watson’s formula by introducing into it “intermediate variables”, by which he understood certain events in the body that arise as a result of the stimulus, but are not in the strict sense a response . According to Tolman, such “intermediate variable” can be “cognitive maps”, i.e. the formed image of a labyrinth in a rat that previously ran in it, which allows the rat to navigate in this labyrinth. Such an "intermediate variable" may, for example, also be a target.

Another neobievist representative, Beres Skinner (1904–1990), argued that behavior can be determined not by stimulus, but by the likely consequences of behavior. He also introduced the concept of "operant learning." According to this concept, an animal or person will seek to reproduce the experience, which had pleasant consequences, and avoid behavior that leads to trouble. Thus, it turned out that it was not the person himself who chooses his own behavior, but the probable consequences of the behavior determine his final choice. On this assumption, Skinner proposed the idea of ​​programmed learning, which implies a “step-by-step” mastery of the activity with the reinforcement of each correct step taken.

A special direction in the framework of behaviorism was sociobehaviorism, which arose in the 60s. His leading representative is the Canadian psychologist Albert Bandura (1925–1988), the creator of the theory of social learning. According to this theory, a person can master new forms of behavior, not so much by their own trial and error, as by observing other people’s behavior patterns and the consequences of this behavior. Moreover, reinforcement can come not only from other people, but also at the level of self-reinforcement (assessment of compliance with internal standards of behavior). Many of the positions of behaviorism have not lost their meaning today. They are actively used in the organization of professional activity, training, psychotherapy and other areas.
<< Ahead Next >>
= Go to tutorial content =

Formation of psychology as a separate science

  1. Prerequisites of the formation of developmental psychology and age psychology into an independent area of ​​psychological science
    The design of developmental psychology (child or age psychology) as an independent branch of scientific knowledge belongs to the second half of the 19th century. Two directions joined together, which until this time developed in parallel and independent of each other. This is a study of child development, which were associated with natural science and medicine, as well as ethnographic studies of childhood and language, mainly
  2. Characteristics of age psychology, developmental psychology as a science
    Developmental psychology is a branch of psychological science that studies the facts and patterns of human development, the age dynamics of his psyche. The object of studying age psychology is a normal, healthy person, developing and changing in ontogenesis. Developmental psychology highlights age-related changes in people's behavior and seeks to explain these changes, uncover patterns
  3. Features of psychology as a science. The ratio of everyday and scientific psychology.
    There are two different areas of psychological knowledge - scientific and everyday, everyday psychology. If scientific psychology arose relatively recently, then everyday psychological knowledge has always been included in various types of human practice. The fundamental condition for the existence of man is a certain conscious representation of the world around him and his place in it. Study of
  4. Military psychology as a branch of psychological science
    Study questions: 1. Subject of military psychology 2. Basic principles, methods and tasks of military psychology Daily tasks solved by military specialists (leaders, educators, military psychologists, etc.) require them to understand the patterns of manifestation and the formation of the psychology of the individual of a military man and military teams in conditions of different types of military
  5. Criteria of psychology as a science
    • Science is a sphere of human activity, the main function of which is to develop knowledge about the world, to systematize it, to build an image of the world based on them (scientific picture of the world) and how to interact with it (scientifically based practice). • The object of science is that side of reality, on the study of which this science is directed. • The subject of science is what sides are the objects being studied in science
  6. From the history of the formation of psychology as a science
    The concept of “psychology,” as sources most often indicate, first appeared in 1590 in the writings of the German theologian Goklenius; German scholar Christian Wolf (1679-1754), the author of the books “Rational Psychology” and “Empirical Psychology”, first introduced him into the scientific language of the 30s of the 18th century. This, of course, did not mean that thoughts about the soul, and even less ideas about it, arose only with
  7. Military psychology as a branch of psychological science
    Now, more than ever, military specialists and leaders of all levels are looking forward to military psychology. These expectations are associated with a special - applied role of the military-psychological science in ensuring the effectiveness of the vital activities of troops in peacetime and in wartime. In connection with the inclusion in the combat regulations of the Armed Forces of the Armed Forces section
  8. The main stages of the development of psychology as a science
    {foto6} {foto7} Source: Zhdan A.N. The history of psychology from antiquity to modernity: A textbook for universities. - 4th revised, M.-Ekaterinburg, 2002,
  9. Military psychology as a branch of modern psychological science, its structure and functions
    Military psychology is one of the independent applied branches of modern psychological science. Like any other branch of psychology, it has its own subject and object of study, its own tasks and structure. It should be noted that despite the relatively long period of existence of this branch of psychological science, there is no universally accepted definition of military psychology. Therefore, further
  10. The history of the formation of psychology as a science
    The history of the formation of psychology as
Medical portal "MedguideBook" © 2014-2016
info@medicine-guidebook.com