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Forms of professional communication of psychologists and their professional communities

The successful professional development of a psychologist is largely due to the presence and possibility of his being included in the system of professional-activity relations and relations, which are a significant factor in the development of his personality. In the hierarchy of these relationships, at least four types of relationships can be distinguished:

- relations with customers and their environment;

- relations with other psychologists;

- Relations with the administration (officials);

- Relations with other (related) specialists (social workers, doctors, teachers, etc.).

Thus, the future professional space for a practical psychologist can be represented as a sociotechnical system that unites entities interacting to solve a specific problem. Each of these entities, realizing one or another type of inherent (characteristic) activity, is an expression of a certain professional position in relation to the problem being solved.

The basis for determining “one's own” professional position is the capabilities of this specialist and the normatively prescribed method of action with an object that needs to be translated into a new quality of functioning. Such an object may, for example, be a person in need of psychological assistance. Suppose, as a result of the preliminary work, the psychologist has identified those conditions that can contribute to the resolution of a person’s problem. But the creation of these conditions largely depends on other people (except the psychologist and the client). The circle of people who can help in this matter can be expanded by involving other specialists, relatives and friends, the administration and representatives of the staff of the institution where this person works. Each of the people involved in solving this common problem, possessing certain abilities, skills to solve similar problems, authority and competence, is, therefore, an exponent of his special position, and, consequently, an implementer of specific functions in relation to the basic, common for all process.

The professional cooperation arising in this case (about helping a particular person) is considered as a single process of converting “source material” into a new quality, in which one participant in the cooperation is interested in a particular product of another.

For example, for a more fruitful work with a client, it is necessary to understand the peculiarities of the situation on the part of representatives of the administration of the institution in which he works, and take appropriate measures (non-disclosure of information, the creation of a sparing work schedule, transfer to another site, etc.).

The development of cooperation is facilitated by the emergence of difficulties, the removal of which requires new activities. Thus, the difficulties that make it impossible to continue one type of activity appears to a certain extent as an order for the appearance of another activity and serves as its source material.

Fig. 10.

The structure of the cooperative relationship of various activities

So, in cooperative activities, the typical difficulties of a “performer” can be taken into account in normative documents fixing an extra-situational norm and removed (that is, eliminated, overcome) by the performer (see Fig. 10). If the difficulty has not been encountered previously in the practice of a particular contractor or if it is necessary to coordinate its activities with the activities of other contractors, he is forced to contact a manager who helps to remove this difficulty on the basis of an analysis of a specific situation and taking into account the existing regulatory grounds.

The search for a specific reason for typical difficulties caused by the inability to carry out activities within the framework of the initial regulatory framework leads to the actualization of research activities. Reconstructing the carried out activity and isolating the typical one in it, the researcher presents the result of his activity in the form of scientific knowledge, which is subsequently used to design and create a new norm.

For a psychologist who has not encountered similar cases before in his own practice, it is legitimate and necessary to turn to more experienced specialists or to a specialist of a different profile. Such cooperative interaction is an important factor in the professional development of a specialist. Professional communication regarding the solution of a particular problem contributes to a more objective psychologist’s vision of the various facets of this problem, its nuances, the determination on this basis of the most appropriate methods and techniques of activity, and ultimately, the accumulation of personal experience and the development of professional thinking.

Thus, the most important condition for the professional development of a practical psychologist is his professional interaction and communication with other specialists, during which the elements of the basic types of professional thinking are acquired and experience is borrowed from these specialists. The success of this process is largely determined by the degree to which the psychologist is included in such a structure of professional-activity relations and relations, which contributes to the formation by the psychologist of the ability to independently set goals and regulate professional activities and professional self-development.

The presence of a professionally saturated environment for communication with specialist psychologists, acting as a source of professional and personal development of a specialist, suggests the allocation of such an important element as the psychological community. The main forms of cooperation carried out within its framework realize the functions of not only the exchange of experience and advanced training, but also the qualified assessment of the professional competence of a psychologist.

The possibilities for realizing professional ties between psychologists are quite diverse. The main units of the organizational structure within which the interaction and professional growth of psychologists is carried out are: psychological associations, societies, institutions and psychological journals.

Psychological journals are periodicals covering the development of psychological science and its problems.

Psychological institutions - research institutes or their structural divisions, faculties of psychology of universities, industry laboratories, departments of psychology of universities, which conduct research work in the field of psychology and train psychologists.

The largest organization uniting the world's psychologists is the International Union of Psychological Science (IUPsyS). It consists of national unions and associations representing the psychologists of individual countries on the principle of “one association - one country”.

IUPsyS was founded in 1951. Today it unites 54 national psychological associations. In turn, IUPsyS is a member of the International Council of Social Sciences (ISSC) and the International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU). In addition, IUPsyS is assigned consultative status with UNESCO.

The largest psychological national union today is the American Psychological Association (ARA), which unites more than 200 thousand psychologists. The Association develops standards for the professional training and competence of practical psychologists and monitors their compliance. According to these standards, psychologists include specialists with a doctorate. Workers with a master's degree are called assistant psychologists or specialists, for example, in school psychology. In order to maintain the high quality of professional competence of psychologists, a licensing system operates in the country. For the first time in the USA, an exam for obtaining licenses was introduced in 1965. To obtain a license, you must have a doctorate, a certain working experience, pass a written and oral exam and score the corresponding passing score.

Russia is also represented as part of IUPsyS by a national organization - the Russian Psychological Society under the Presidium of the Russian Academy of Sciences, which became the assignee of the Society of Psychologists of the USSR.

In addition to national unions, the International Union of Psychological Science includes, on the rights of associate members, other international associations of psychologists formed on the basis of scientific specialization or practical orientation. These include: International Association of Applied Psychology (IAAP); Inter-American Society of Psychology (unites scientists from Latin America); Association of Scientific Psychology of Francophone Countries (APSLA); International Union of Psychologists (ICP); International Association of Cross-Cultural Psychology (IACCP); European Association of Experimental Social Psychologists (EAESP); International Society of Comparative Psychology (ISCP); International Society for the Study of Behavioral Development (ISSBD); European Association of Personality Psychology (EAPP).

The International Union of Psychological Science regularly holds world congresses of psychologists, as well as conferences, seminars and meetings on selected areas and problems of psychological science and practice. IUPsyS supports individual research projects, conducts scientific training seminars, etc. Since 1966, the IUPsyS body, the International Journal of Psychology, has been published.

The largest association of Russian psychologists is the Russian Psychological Society, which is registered as a scientific society under the Presidium of the Russian Academy of Sciences. It was founded in 1994 in Moscow at the Constituent Congress. The company consists of 56 regional branches and is led by the Coordination Council elected by the congress, and in the intervals between congresses and meetings of the Constitutional Court of the RPO - the president and the Presidium of the Constitutional Court. In its activities, society is guided by the charter and program. In the structure of RPO formed sections: the psychology of education, the psychology of creativity, the psychology of advertising and others.
RPO publishes the series of collections “Psychology Today” and the journal “Psychological Review”.

In addition to RPOs, there are many independent psychological associations in Russia: the Association of Practical Psychologists, the Society of Psychologists, the Psychophysiological Society, etc. In addition, there are more “specialized" societies and organizations whose interests include applied problems of practical psychology in various industries and spheres of life people (for example, the Psychological Society of Traumatic Stress, the Russian Psychoanalytic Association, the All-Russian Federation of Sports Psychology, etc.).

Psychological institutions include research institutes, centers and their subdivisions, faculties of psychology of universities, training and continuing education centers for practical psychologists. In the Russian Federation there are several leading psychological institutions. Without a doubt, these include the Psychological Institute of the Russian Academy of Education and the Institute of Psychology of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

The Psychological Institute of the Russian Academy of Education was founded in 1912 at the Department of Philosophy at the History and Philology Department of Moscow University as the Institute of Psychology. Moscow Institute created by G.I. Chelpanov, with the financial support of the well-known philanthropist S.I. Shchukin, embodied all the best that had been accumulated by then by the world practice of organizing experimental psychological research. The first director of the Institute was G.I. Chelpanov.

For 90 years, the institute has repeatedly changed its name and departmental affiliation, but remained the center of basic research. The Psychological Institute of RAO (PI RAO) employs over 240 employees. PI RAO is 30 laboratories and research groups, united in the following departments: 1) Philosophical and cultural-historical psychology. 2) Developmental developmental psychology. 3) Pedagogical psychology. 4) Psychology of personality. 5) General psychology. 6) Practical psychology. At the Institute organized the International Psychological College. The Russian Academy of Education includes the Department of Psychology and Age Psychology. Today, the most numerous team of Russian psychologists is working in RAO institutions.

For many years, the Psychological Institute was practically the only specialized research institution in our country. It took almost 70 years for another research center to be organized in the country - the Institute of Psychology RAS (IP RAS). A prominent domestic psychologist B.F. Lomov. In this he was assisted by such outstanding scientists as P.K. Anokhin, A.N. Leontiev, A.R. Luria, V.D. Nebylitsyn, E.V. Shorokhova, V.A. Ponomarenko, A.I. Berg, V.V. Parents, B.N. Petrov and many others. The Institute of Psychology of the Russian Academy of Sciences included the psychology sector of the Institute of Philosophy of the Russian Academy of Sciences, formed in 1945 S.L. Rubinstein.

Today, IP RAS employs more than 200 employees who conduct basic and applied research in the field of general psychology, personality psychology, differential psychology, social psychology, cognitive psychology, labor psychology and engineering psychology, psychophysiology, etc. The institute has 20 scientific divisions (laboratories and functional groups). The Institute has a Consulting Center, Higher Psychological College and a publishing house. The Institute is the founder of the Psychological Journal of the Russian Academy of Sciences and the journal Foreign Psychology.

Many research institutes and centers of RAO are headed by psychologists; Most institutes have departments and laboratories of a psychological profile. These include: Institute of Corrective Pedagogy of the Russian Academy of Education, Institute of Pedagogical Innovations of the Russian Academy of Education, Research Center for Family and Childhood of the Russian Academy of Education, Research Center of Social Pedagogy of the Russian Academy of Education, Research Center of Sociology of Education of the Russian Academy of Education, Research Center of Aesthetic Education of the Russian Academy of Education, Institute of Professional Self-Determination of the Russian Academy of Education.

The Institute for Personality Development of the Russian Academy of Education, established in 1992, is primarily engaged in psychological research: the psychology of rehabilitation of a person, the psychology of life self-determination, developmental psychology, etc.

In the educational system, there are many psychological research institutions, in particular the Scientific and Methodological Center “Diagnosis, Adaptation, Development” named after L.S. Vygotsky and Center "Preschool childhood" named. A.V. Zaporozhets at the Education Committee of Moscow. Outside of Moscow, psychological laboratories are organized at the Institute of Adult Education of the Russian Academy of Education (St. Petersburg), the Institute of Education of Siberia, the Far East and the North of the Russian Academy of Education (Tomsk) and many other institutions.

In the system of the Russian Academy of Sciences, there are a number of scientific psychological units, in particular, the sector of social psychology of science at the Institute of the History of Natural Science and Technology of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

The largest research center in the field of medical psychology and psychotherapy is the V. Bekhterev Psychoneurological Institute in St. Petersburg (director - professor B. L. Kabanov). Psychological research laboratories and groups are available at the institutes of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, in particular at the Scientific Center for Mental Health.

Research on applied psychological issues is being conducted at the Military University, Cosmonaut Training Center. Yu.A. Gagarin, Research Institute of Aviation and Space Medicine, the Scientific and Practical Center of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, the Institute of Biomedical Problems, the All-Russian Research Institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation, the All-Russian Research Institute of Technical Aesthetics and many other departmental research institutions.

Since ancient times, the faculty of psychology of the largest universities has possessed the most powerful scientific psychological potential: Moscow State University (MSU), Moscow State Pedagogical University (MGPU), St. Petersburg State University (SPbU), Yaroslavl State University (Yaroslavl State University). Departments and laboratories of these universities conduct research corresponding to the world level.

The traditional list of leading psychological research institutions in Russia (the “Big Five”) is made up by the Institute of Psychology of the Russian Academy of Sciences, the Psychological Institute of the Russian Academy of Education, the Psychoneurological Institute named after V.M. Ankylosing spondylitis and psychology departments of Moscow State University and St. Petersburg State University. They account for most of the scientific product of Russian psychology. These centers have the largest number of scientific contracts, and employees receive most of the grants funded by the scientific foundations of the Russian Humanities Foundation, Russian Foundation for Basic Research, Cultural Initiative, Ford Foundation, etc.

New for Russia, the organizational and financial form of support for psychological scientific activity are scientific foundations. К их числу относятся уже упоминавшиеся РГНФ и РФФИ, а также иностранные фонды, финансирующие исследования российских ученых, в первую очередь — Международный научный фонд и его Многочисленные ответвления (“Культурная инициатива”, “Открытое общество”, “Центрально-Европейский университет” и пр.). Например, в структуре Российского гуманитарного научного фонда существует отдел, занимающийся проблемами комплексного изучения человека.

В научно-исследовательских учреждениях основным рабочим органом выступают исследовательские лаборатории. Например, в Институте психологии РАН в разное время функционировали следующие лаборатории: теории и истории психологии; социальной психологии, когнитивных процессов, психологии речи и психолингвистики, невербальной коммуникации, психофизиологии, психологии труда и др.

Деятельность лаборатории направляется темой научного исследования, которая предопределяет перспективу исследовательской работы ее сотрудников на несколько лет вперед. В качестве основных результатов научной работы выступают:

* на уровне лаборатории - отчет об итогах исследовательской работы;

* на индивидуальном уровне - диссертационные исследования, выполненные научными сотрудниками в рамках общей тематики исследовательской работы и являющиеся предметом коллективного обсуждения представителей научного сообщества, входящих в специализированные ученые советы.

Для того чтобы с этими результатами мог ознакомиться широкий круг специалистов, данные результаты публикуются на страницах психологических журналов. В нашей стране такими журналами являются «Вопросы психологии», «Психологический журнал», «Мир психологии», «Московский психотерапевтический журнал», «Прикладная психология и психоанализ» и др. Такое заочное общение психологов в обсуждении результатов экспериментальных исследований, психологических методик и технологий на страницах научных журналов служит важным источником их профессионального совершенствования.

Основными формами обсуждения ключевых вопросов развития академической и практической психологии, психологической службы в нашей стране являются съезды и конференции психологов – членов Российского психологического общества.

Профессиональное взаимодействие психологов может быть реализовано также в форме их непосредственного участия в различных специализированных практических семинарах, на которых обсуждаются вопросы теории и практики организации психологической работы в учреждениях и организациях; оказания психологической помощи и т.п.

К важной форме взаимодействия, обеспечивающей совместное решение проблемы, можно отнести участие психологов в реализации различного рода экспериментальных исследований. Обмен опытом происходит также в ходе взаимного посещения сеансов консультирования и психотерапии, наблюдения за работой квалифицированных специалистов. По мнению многих практических психологов, каждый начинающий специалист до начала профессиональной деятельности должен лично пройти курс индивидуальной и групповой терапии, особенно в группах, ориентированных на совершенствование личности, т.е. проработать свои проблемы при содействии опытного профессионала. Названными формами не исчерпывается все многообразие связей между психологами, обеспечивающих их профессиональный и личностный рост.
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