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B. FRANKL AND THE MEANING OF LIFE

This direction has not yet been canonized, and Victor Frankl (1905) is our contemporary. In 1985, he came to the Soviet Union and successfully delivered two lectures at Moscow University, which gathered a large audience from all over the country. His work in the pre-perestroika period was almost unknown to us. The first large publication, “A Man in Search of Meaning,” with an introduction by the author in our country, was published in 1990. Although the book was published in a rather large circulation (136,000), it quickly became a bibliographic rarity.

In official textbooks, the theory and practice of existential analysis, apart from his Marxist criticism, was not covered in any way. However, Frankl's ideas are so fresh and relevant for our developmental period that I allow myself to give a more detailed coverage of the theory of existential analysis and logotherapy, especially since I widely use these ideas in my practical work.

But first of all about Frankl himself.

He was born in Vienna. He studied with both Freud and Adler. But the directions they had recently emerged turned out to be too traditional for Frank, and he began to object to both Adler and Freud. In 1927, he was expelled from the Adler Society of Individual Psychology.

In 1930, Frankl received a doctorate in medicine. He did not have time to emigrate from Germany. Once he miraculously managed to avoid arrest. He was saved by the Gestapo officer, to whom he provided medical assistance. In 1942, he ended up in a concentration camp, where he stayed until 1945. But even there he carried out psychological and psychotherapeutic work. Its results are summarized in the article “Psychologist in a concentration camp”, which is difficult to read without tears. It is impossible not to marvel at the courage of this man who, in unbearable conditions, suffering himself, continued his work. And only such a person could write that a person always has freedom of choice. He noted that in such conditions, some become pigs, while others become saints. Frankl, of course, can be considered a holy man.

After the war, he worked as director of the Vienna Neurological Outpatient Hospital, wrote a lot and traveled around the world. He became convinced that the problem of the meaning of life in a society of material well-being has become even more acute, and "each time requires its own psychotherapy." For our time, speech therapy can be considered the most suitable. After all, we have a large number of people who completely unexpectedly and undeservedly lost their usual conditions of existence. Get to know Frankl’s work. When I read his works, I am overwhelmed with deep excitement, and the troubles that I have experienced and are now experiencing seem to me petty and insignificant. My listeners become just as excited and spiritualized when I expose Frankl's ideas. But, unfortunately, this effect does not last long. Then again you start to get bogged down in the little things of life and self-digging. We have to return to V. Frankl again and again.

The effect of his methods is shocking not only the severity of the result, but also the speed of its occurrence.

Frankl believed that traditional psychology and psychotherapy only manifest in the consciousness the deepest phenomena of mental life, and existential analysis seeks to draw the attention of consciousness to genuine spiritual entities and is designed to bring a person to awareness of his own responsibility. It is the latter that is the basis of human existence.

First of all, Frankl raises the question of the meaning of life. In explicit or implicit form, this question torments every person. And you, my young friend, are concerned about this issue when choosing a profession. Doubts in the sense of life cannot be regarded as manifestations of mental pathology; these doubts reflect true human experiences, they are a sign of man in man himself. For only a man thinks about the meaning of his existence, doubting it.

The problem of the meaning of life at times can literally take over a person completely.

Many neurotics say they would rather live away from the struggle for existence.

Of course, you can temporarily take a “vacation” from your daily duties and forget yourself, for example, in alcohol. But then all the same, life will claim its rights. If a person forgets the goal and is interested in money, he has a “weekend neurosis” - a feeling of emptiness of his own life. The victims of this neurosis are poured in order to be saved from the horror of this emptiness.

Existential analysis helps a person deal with the suffering caused by the philosophical problems posed by life itself.

Spiritual problems are not symptoms, but dignity, expressing the level of meaningfulness achieved by a person, or the level that he must reach.

This is especially true for people who have lost a loved one to whom they have dedicated their lives. These people lose their spiritual core and cause special pity. Without it, a person is unable to withstand the blows of fate in difficult periods of life. So, all centenarians adhered to a calm and life-affirming position.

A philosophical position must manifest itself sooner or later. If a person cannot come up with arguments for life, then sooner or later he will have thoughts of suicide. Ask yourself why you do not think about suicide, and you will find the meaning of your existence.

First of all, Frankl describes those phenomena and conditions that cannot be the meaning of life. He refers to them pleasure, joy and happiness. Pleasure is the result of our aspirations, and joy is always directed towards some object.

The pursuit of happiness in itself cannot be the meaning of human existence. A man who is desperately eager for happiness, by his zeal cuts his own path to it. Happiness is a byproduct of well-organized activities.

Frankl argues that it is necessary to explain to the patient the richness of the world of values ​​and help him develop flexibility and the ability to switch to another value group if interest in the present is lost. Isn’t you talking to Frankl now, my young friend?

Frankl believes that the position of a person, his profession means absolutely nothing. Decisive is how he works, copes with his responsibilities.

An ordinary person who really manages his circle of duties and tasks that his social position sets before him, despite his “small” life, is greater than his “great” statesman, whose immoral decisions can carry a great evil.

Frankl identifies three categories of values.

The values ​​that are realized in productive creative activities, Frankl calls "creative."

In addition to creative, there are values ​​realized in experiences. These are the “values ​​of experience." They appear in awe of works of art, nature, in love. The meaning of this moment is not determined by the actions of the individual.

But it’s worth living for the sake of spiritual ecstasy! The greatness of life is determined by the greatness of the moment. After all, the height of the mountain range is determined not by the height of the valley, but by the magnitude of the highest peak. So life peaks determine the meaningfulness of all life. And a single event can retrospectively fill with the meaning of all the preceding. And if I bring up one genius at the end of my pedagogical career, all my past teaching work will acquire a deep meaning, even if then, in the past, it seemed ridiculous.

The third category of values ​​relates to factors that limit a person’s life. These are “relationship values.” For the relation of man to his fate, which befell his lot, is really significant. The way he carries the cross, the courage that he shows in suffering, the dignity that he shows when he is condemned and doomed - all this is a measure of how much he took place as a person. Indeed, in the crucible of suffering a person is forged.

Frankl concludes that a person’s life in essence can never be meaningless. And while consciousness has not left a person, he is constantly obliged to realize values ​​until the last moment of his existence. And although he has few opportunities for this, the values ​​of the relationship remain always available to him.

Frankl gave an example.

The dying patient was paralyzed and deprived of the ability to act, but he read and enjoyed the music. And when he became inaccessible to him, he comforted the sick. On the day of his death, which he found out by listening to the doctors talk, he asked his sister to give an injection in the evening so as not to disturb her at night.

When I gave this example at one of the classes in the group, he made such a strong impression on one hypochondriac (a person who considers his mild illness to be excessively severe) that he soon showed a significant improvement.

Frankl is an opponent of suicide. A suicide resembles a chess player who is faced with a very difficult task and simply brushes the pieces off the board. But in this way the problem cannot be solved. It is necessary to teach people reverence for life. And psychologists should help a bewildered person to fill life with meaning.

“If a person has a reason, he will endure anyone like that.” Life is always more meaningful if it is more difficult to give. Nothing helps a person to overcome objective difficulties and endure subjective troubles as a vital task, especially if it seems to be something like a mission.

Frankl helps us make one choice or another. Read this passage. Maybe this will help you in choosing a profession.

Frankl believes that there are situational and eternal values. A person can realize situational value only once in a lifetime. If this opportunity is missed, it is lost forever, and Frankl urges people in their own lives to realize these unique and unique opportunities.

And if you need to go on a date now, quit reading this book. She won’t leave you anywhere. Go on a date! Otherwise, this situational value will be lost once and for all. And you will still have a headache for a long time because of a missed opportunity. Do not worry if the meeting disappoints you. All the same, you have already solved one problem and will not meet with this person again. And then you can return to the book and read it carefully.

Frankl tried to help a person achieve maximum focus on the life task before him, to show him that the life of each person has a unique goal, to achieve which one path leads. My dear friend, understand that your life is peculiar and unique. Do not be “like everyone else”, do not destroy yourself. How can a person figure out what he should be, in contrast to what he is? Goethe answers this question: “How do we know ourselves? Meditating - never, but only acting! Try to do your duty, and soon you will find out who you are. And then what is your duty? The requirements of every day! ”

Many usually seek to accomplish any one task to the detriment of the others, which is wrong, for we would pass by situational values ​​instead of realizing them. So now I am writing this book as I want, and not as they said. Maybe the publisher will refuse it. But I enjoyed writing it. If there is something in the book, it will publish something else.

From Frankl’s point of view, the “life task in general” does not exist, just as there is no better move in chess. It is necessary to do not "the best", but "the best that you are capable of in this situation." Do not worry for a long time in choosing a profession if your hesitation is still ongoing. Throw lots and submit to fate. And if you happen to be a psychologist, stop reading this book. Psychology will be your eternal value. Read some later. For those who have not happened to become a psychologist, continue reading. For you, this value is situational. Immersed in the study of another profession, you may never return to psychology.

Let's stay a little longer with Frankl.

He said that death also makes sense. If we were immortal, we could safely put off our affairs for any time. Unfortunately, many people behave like immortal gods, putting off their affairs. But in the face of death, we must use the time allotted to us to the maximum. Only then does life make sense. The meaning of human life is based on the principle of irreversibility of existence. This idea should be brought to your ward, so that he takes responsibility for his life.

In the beginning, life is an untouched “material”, but now it unfolds, and the “material” becomes less and less. It turns into "clothes." These are our actions, experiences, experience. All that we have accumulated on the path of life. And if none of this exists, then the “material” disappeared irrevocably - went to the rags.

Frankl draws another analogy.
A man is like a sculptor who sculpts his life from stone. And you should do as the sculptor does. He is already trying to see in stone what can be made of it so that there is less waste. In addition, a person does not know how much time is allotted to him. You should not rush, but you should not stand idle. It doesn’t matter if the work is not completed. It is important what quality it is.

This is Frankl speaking to you, my young friend!

Frankl warns us not to strive to be perfect. If all people were perfect, then each could be replaced by another. It is from our imperfection that the irreplaceability and irreproducibility of each individual follows. And a bit more. Frankl believes that where individuality is not recognized, there is no community, there is a crowd, a herd. The crowd does not tolerate individuality. He compares the crowd with a cobblestone pavement, and the true community with a mosaic pattern. In a cobblestone pavement, one stone can be replaced by another; in a mosaic, every fragment is irreplaceable. And if it falls out, you have to rebuild the whole picture. This is why community loss is irreparable.

The community emphasizes the individuality of its members, the crowd suppresses it, restricting the freedom of the individual for the sake of equality and replacing the brotherhood with herd instinct.

A person must live by the formula: to be means to be different. The existence of man as a person means his absolute dissimilarity to others.

As you can see, Frankl's work is imbued with respect for man, for personality.

Frankl teaches us not to be afraid of mistakes. They should serve as fruitful material for shaping a better future: lessons should be learned from one's own mistakes.

You need to respect your instincts. “In instincts, my" I "draws energy. My passions are the wind that blows wherever he wants, and my “I” must control the sails of fate in order to sail where I need to. A good sailor can sail against the wind. Where to swim? This is what the meaning of life is for. Instincts push us, and meaning attracts us.

Initial weakness is a stupid invention. A weak-willed person becomes one who has no goal and who does not know how to make decisions. ”

Frankl believes that suffering also makes sense. A man grows and grows up, suffering; his unhappy love brings him more benefit than many love victories could give. By exaggerating the importance of pleasant experiences, people develop in themselves an unjustified tendency to complain about fate. To evaluate the melody, it doesn’t matter whether it is major or minor.

Suffering causes a fruitful, radically transforming spiritual tension, which on an emotional level helps a person to realize what should be. In the sufferings of man, deep wisdom is revealed, which is beyond all reason. For inner life, sorrow and remorse are full of deep meaning.

Boredom also makes sense. It seems to remind us that we are inactive. The meaning of suffering is that it protects a person from apathy and spiritual numbness. As long as we are capable of suffering, we remain spiritually alive. We grow and mature in suffering, they make us richer and stronger. Grief, as it were, brings the past to the present. Repentance and sorrow - both of these feelings - serve to “correct” the past. You can’t extinguish the misfortunes with drugs. Trying to forget himself, a man forces himself to “ignore” what happened, and tries to run away from him. But the dulling of feelings does not lead to the elimination of the very subject of experiences. Suffering and grief are part of human life, like fate or death. None of them can be taken out of life without violating its meaning. For only under the blows of the hammer of fate in the crucible of suffering a person is forged, and life takes on its form and content. So go for it! Do or not you go to the Faculty of Psychology, everything makes sense!

Frankl warns that a person should not prematurely lay down his arms, for it is easy to take the situation for fate and bow his head to an imaginary fate. Only when he does not have the ability to create something, to enjoy something, the time comes to suffer. Only the person who has done everything so as not to suffer is truly suffering. This is a noble suffering. But if a person did nothing to avoid suffering, then his suffering cannot be called noble, and indeed can not be called suffering.

My young friend, if you do nothing, then troubles will find you, but can your feelings be considered suffering?

Терпение оправдано только тогда, когда сама судьба ставит человека в условия, когда он вынужден терпеть, ибо ни изменить своего положения, ни избежать его он не в состоянии. Только оправданное терпение является нравственным достижением; только неизбежное страдание имеет нравственный смысл. Таким об-' разом, круг оправданных страданий, по Франклу, весьма узок. В него входят неизлечимые заболевания при условии, что были предприняты все меры профилактики, заключение в концентрационный лагерь при авторитарных режимах, гибель близких людей; и т. п,

«Жизнь — ничто, жизнь — это возможность сделать что-то». В этом принципе Геббеля содержится ответ на вопрос о смысле жизни. Ибо существуют лишь две возможности: работать вместе с судьбой, придавая ей формы, и таким образом реализовывать созидательные ценности или, если это невозможно и страдание неизбежно, страдать, реализуя ценности отношения.

Кстати, что у вас крепче всего осталось в памяти? Уверен, что страдания и беды, из которых вам удалось с честью выйти!

Пересказывать работы Франкла очень трудно. Все там важно. Но у меня другая цель. Поэтому дам еще несколько его изречений, касающихся работы и любви:

«Если и существуют случаи, когда выбранная работа не приносит удовлетворения, то здесь виноват сам человек, а не работа. Работа сама по себе не делает человека нужным и незаменимым; она лишь дает ему возможность стать таковым. Важна не работа, которую человек выполняет, а то, как он ее выполняет. Все зависит от того, сколько личностных качеств вложит человек в свою работу».

«Некоторые финансовые магнаты настолько заняты добычей средств для жизни, что забывают саму жизнь».

«Безработица для невротиков — находка, ибо теперь во всех жизненных неудачах они могут обвинить именно ее. Безработица выступает в виде

козла отпущения, на которого они могут свалить всю вину за неудавшуюся жизнь».

«Где нет любви, ее заменяет работа; где нет работы, наркотиком становится любовь». (Это Франкл цитирует писательницу Алису Литткенс).

«Самая большая ошибка, которую мы можем совершить в жизни, — это почить на лаврах. Никогда не следует довольствоваться достигнутым. Жизнь не перестает задавать все новые и новые вопросы, не позволяя остановиться».

«Стоящего обходят; довольный собой потерян. Ни в творчестве, ни в переживаниях нельзя довольствоваться достигнутым. Каждый день, каждый час требуют от нас новых свершений».

«Любовь не заслуживают, любовь — это просто милость».

«Любовь делает человека не слепым, а зрячим, способным видеть ценности».

«При физическом, как и при эротическом, влечении измены гарантированы. И только настоящая любовь является гарантом постоянства».

«Любовь так мало направлена на тело любимого, что она может легко перенести его смерть; она остается существовать в сердце того, кто любит».

«Когда исчезает тело, неверно говорить, что личность больше не существует, она просто не проявляется. Вот почему истинная любовь не зависит от присутствия человека. Любовь в такой степени независима от тела, что не нуждается в нем.

Даже секс не является первичным, он только средство самовыражения. Любовь как таковая может существовать без него. Там, где сексуальность возможна, любовь будет желать ее и стремиться к ней; но там, где требуется отказ от нее, любовь не охладеет и не умрет. Любовь лишь использует тело. Вот почему физически зрелые любовники в итоге придут к сексуальной связи. Но последняя является лишь одной из форм выражения любви. И именно любовь придает сексу человеческое достоинство, а сексуальный акт для любящих является выражением духовного единства».

«Аля любви физическая внешность имеет небольшое значение Действительные черты любимого и черты его характера приобретают эротическое значение благодаря самой любви. Именно любовь, как лучший косметолог, делает эти черты привлекательными». Вот почему Франкл призывает сдержанно относиться к косметике.

Многие «преувеличивают значение любви. В действительности она — это лишь один из способов наполнить жизнь содержанием, притом не самый лучший. Наша жизнь была бы бедна, если бы ее смысл зависел от любви».

«Нельзя пытаться силой открыть ту дверь, которая открывается сама и не поддается насильственному штурму. Проблемы любви нельзя решать, они решаются сами. Но следует подготовить себя к любви. И если она свалится на тебя, нужно к этому времени быть сильным, чтобы эта ноша не казалась тяжестью и давала наслаждение».

«Не следует и обесценивать любовь, как это делают иногда не добившиеся успеха в любви. Тогда они напоминают ту лису, которая, не дотянувшись до винограда, объявила, что он зеленый и кислый, и сами закрывают себе путь к счастью».

«После неудачи в любви на время отказаться от нее, а потом попытаться еще раз, если выпадет случай».

«Опасно переоценивать значение красоты для эротической любви, так как при этом человек обесценивается как таковой. Есть что-то оскорбительное в этом, когда женщину характеризуют как красивую. Высокая оценка в низкой категории наталкивает на мысль о наличии низкой оценки в более высокой».

«В труде каждый человек проявляет свою неповторимость, а в любви он вбирает неповторимость и своеобразие партнера».

«Любовь видит человека таким, каким его предполагал при создании Бог. В любви мы постигаем человека не только таким, каков он есть, но и таким, каким он может стать». Если психолог способен любить, он видит потенциальные ценности в своих подопечных и помогает им их реализовать.

«Такого понятия, как «неразделенная несчастная любовь», нет, ибо любовь неизбежно обогащает того, кто любит. В самом понятии заложено противоречие. Либо вы действительно любите и в таком случае чувствуете себя обогащенным, либо не любите по-настоящему и ищете в партнере качества, которые он имеет и которыми вы могли бы обладать. Конечно, ваши чувства могут остаться безответными, но тогда, значит, и вы не любите. Мы все должны помнить следующее: увлечение ослепляет нас, настоящая любовь дает возможность видеть».

«В настоящей любви нет места ревности, ибо любимого нельзя сравнить ни с кем другим. Если я ревную — значит, я считаю, что меня не любят».

«Людям, зараженным ревностью к прошлому, следует быть скромнее и желать быть последним, а не первым».

«Ревность — глупость в любом, случае, так как она проявляется слишком рано или слишком поздно».

«Верность — одна из задач любви; но это задача для того, кто любит, и никогда не должна быть требованием к партнеру».

«Человек должен желать быть достойным счастья, а не стремиться к нему, желать быть достойным любви, а не искать ее, делать свое дело, а не думать об успехе. Все это — побочные продукты правильно организованной осмысленной жизни».

«Моногамные отношения являются кульминацией сексуального развития. Но это идеал, и может быть только руководящим принципом. Он устанавливается подобно «яблочку» в мишени, в которое надо всегда целиться, даже если в него не всегда попадаешь. Редко кто способен на настоящую любовь, и так же редко кто достигает наивысшей духовной зрелости. Это предел нормы».

«А. Эйнштейн как-то писал: «Человек, считающий свою жизнь бессмысленной, не только несчастлив, он вообще едва ли пригоден к жизни». Смысл всегда впереди бытия. Он направляет ход событий. Влечения нас толкают, а смысл тянет и дает направление».

«У каждого человека свой смысл. И психолог должен не навязать индивиду смысл, а помочь найти его, ибо жизнь каждого человека уникальна».

«Человеческое сердце не находит себе покоя и не найдет, пока не найдет смысла и цели жизни».

«Смысл обнаруживается, а не придумывается... Смысл — это, скорее, нечто, что нужно найти».

«Мы можем ошибаться, но возможность ошибки не избавляет нас от принятия решений. Возможно, моя совесть ошибается. При этом я допускаю, что, возможно, совесть другого человека права. Это влечет за собой смирение, скромность и терпимость к другому мнению. Быть терпимым — не значит присоединяться к верованиям другого, но это значит позволить другому верить в свою собственную совесть и подчиняться ей... Следовательно, психолог должен не навязывать пациенту ценностей, а направить его к его собственной совести».
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В. ФРАНКЛ И СМЫСЛ ЖИЗНИ

  1. Смысл жизни: становление, динамика, выбор
    Behind the same term “meaning of life” are three completely different concepts. This is, first of all, the philosophical meaning of life, the synonym of which is the term “destiny” and its analogues (human destiny, human destiny). The second concept is the meaning of life after the fact, the meaning that is determined when a person has lived his life or its completed period. Пример: Петрарка
  2. On the choice of the meaning of life in the modern era
    At the turn of the century, the psychological problem of the meaning of life acquired unexpected relevance and significance. The revealed inconsistency of the concepts of progress and the universal unification of mankind on the model of Euro-American civilization, the collapse of large-scale social utopias - communist and fascist - ultimately led to mass value disorientation of people both in the West and in Russia. IN
  3. THEORY AND HISTORY OF THE PROBLEM OF MEANING OF LIFE AND ACME
    Chudnovsky B.E. (Moscow) The problem of the optimal meaning of life * In psychosocial literature, the meaning of life is usually characterized as a phenomenon that ensures a normal and productive life of a person, the loss of which can have tragic consequences. K. Obukhovsky notes: “Just as the property of a bird is the need to fly, so the property of an adult is the need to find its own meaning
  4. About the meaning of LIFE AND REPAIR
    One girl was looking for the meaning of life for a long time. And then I decided to make repairs in the apartment. What the meaning of life is, the girl has not yet learned exactly, but after reading the special literature she clearly decided that this meaning is not in money. Therefore, she also did not have money for repairs. But there was severe myopia and a kilo of fifteen excess weight. How these components of the Habitual Picture of the World could help with
  5. The dynamics of ideas about the meaning of life and acme of students during their studies at the university
    Human life is motivated by the search for the meaning of its existence, the desire to realize this meaning on the basis of value guidelines. According to W. Frankl (1990), man is driven by the will to meaning. The desire to find the meaning of life is a “secondary rationalization” of instinctual drives, the main motivational force that helps to overcome difficulties. Life becomes meaningful - containing
  6. The meaning of life and professional activities of a teacher
    The study of the applied problems of the meaning of life is one of the most important tasks of personality psychology. In recent years, a number of studies have been carried out in which the connections between the meaning of life and the achievements of a professional person have been studied. The objective of our study is to identify whether educators include their professional activities as a significant component in their life-meaning system.
  7. The meaning of life as an object of psychological research
    Why does a person live? What is the meaning of his life? These questions are always exciting. The desire to realize one’s purpose, to realize how to live, how to make plans for the future, what goals to follow, is inherent in man. Everyone who poses these questions for himself is faced with the difficult problem of understanding his life. Being a global problem, the meaning of life is relative to a specific person
  8. "The meaning of life" in the hypostasis of ancient virtue
    The peculiarity of the problem of the meaning of life is already inherent in its very formulation, breeding (or reducing), or rather, putting these two concepts in the position of mutual search. Meaning and life: life, which should make sense, and meaning, which finds its objective realization in life. How does their mutual “fertilization” take place, is it of an innate or acquired, active nature? This
  9. An empirical typology of the meanings of life in the USA and Russia
    In recent years, the popularity of the meaning of life as a subject of research has been steadily increasing among psychologists. In the new project, “Classifications of Human Positive Abilities,” the meaning of life is called “the most human and, at the same time, the most elusive” of all the positive characteristics of a person and defined as “the presence of a person’s connected ideas about the highest goal and meaning of the world and its place in it "
  10. Понимание смысла жизни личностью в современном мире
    Жизнь постоянно ставит перед человеком задачи, решение которых требует ориентации на свое «Я». Это прежде всего осознание ситуации выбора. У человека есть право видеть, слышать, чувствовать, думать по-своему, проявляя таким образом свою индивидуальность. Индивидуальность человека, его относительная независимость от всех и вся и в то же время предельная зависимость его от всего и всех осознаются
  11. The influence of self-esteem on the process of formation of the meaning of life of high school students
    An important role in the self-determination of a person is played by the process of awareness of the purpose and meaning of life. Understanding the meaning of life can be considered one of the main criteria for personal self-determination (Safin, Nikonov, 1984), and the presence of interest in the meaning of life and its active discussion can be considered as one of the parameters that determine the actively ongoing process of self-determination (Ginsburg, 1996). Particular
  12. The problem of death and immortality in the context of the meaning of life
    The topic of the meaning of life is currently one of the traditional for most humanitarian theories and practices, since it means identifying the underlying premises of the formation and development of the individual. Extensive acmeological experience has been accumulated by psychology, pedagogy, sociology, philosophy and other sciences in order to again and again confront a person with the problem of personal self-determination.
  13. Sense of life and values ​​of children at risk
    In psychological research, the term refers to the awareness of the relationship to life goals. When comprehending his own life, a person is in a state of equilibrium with the environment, in the absence of meanings, problems appear in life and self-realization. The main components of meaning in psychology are the integration of personal and social reality, the explanation and interpretation of life and the purpose of life
  14. Teacher about the meaning of life and human acme in modern society
    In modern society, there is a contradiction between the tasks facing the school as a social institution for the development of the child and the degree to which they are implemented during the educational process. The task of forming the personality of the schoolchild and creating conditions for the emergence and realization of his need for finding the meaning of life, for establishing ideas about the meaning of life, is far from solved.
  15. Unemployed status and its impact on the meaning of human life
    Unemployment in our country is perceived as an absolutely negative phenomenon. Becoming unemployed, a person cannot fully realize himself as a citizen, as a member of the family, as a person as a whole. Sociological studies show that unemployment is not declining, reaching significant sizes especially in rural areas. So, for example, statistics indicate that
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