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From the history of the formation of the psychological profession

So, from what moment can we talk about the emergence of the profession of a psychologist? Above, you became acquainted with various approaches to what a profession is. Let's try, based on this material, as well as on what we managed to discuss regarding various areas of psychologist’s activity, to answer the question posed.

At a minimum, the following is required:

Firstly, it is necessary that the concept of “psychology” exist in the meaning of the special sphere of human activity demanded by society, whether it be a separate science or a special practice. This activity should have its expressed specificity in the subject and methods, that is - in our case - not be philosophy, not pedagogy, not medicine, not physiology, etc., although not lose touch with them.

Secondly, it is necessary to have a community of people involved in this activity as the main one in their lives and thereby earning.

Thirdly, a training system for specialists in this field is needed.

In this regard, the emergence of the psychological profession should probably be associated with the separation of psychology into a separate discipline, that is, with the organization by Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) in Leipzig of the first experimental psychological laboratory already known to you in 1979 and based on it - the Leipzig Psychological Institute , which can be considered both as a research and a kind of educational institution.

The emergence of a specialized psychological institute is a truly significant moment: psychology separated from philosophy and, having absorbed, in addition to philosophical ideas, the achievements and some methods of experimental physiology, it acquired an independent being. In fact, from this moment the formation of the profession of “psychologist” can also be counted out: many prominent psychologists of the world, including our compatriots - psychologist, physiologist, neurologist, doctor Vladimir Mikhailovich Bekhterev (1957-1927), who created Russia's first experimental psychological laboratory at Kazan University in 1885, and in 1908, the Psychoneurological Institute in St. Petersburg; psychologist and philosopher Georgy Ivanovich Chelpanov (1862-1936), creator of Russia's first psychological institute (began work in 1912, was officially opened in 1914; now it is the Psychological Institute of the Russian Academy of Education), one of the pioneers of experimental psychology in Russia Odessa psychologist Nikolai Nikolaevich Lange (1858-1921), creator of the Georgian psychological school Dmitry Nikolaevich Uznadze (1886-1950) and others. The first psychology professor in history, American psychologist James Ketgell (1860-1944), was also trained there.

The emergence of the institute is a milestone; however, psychology, as you recall, now is not only an academic research field (which it was in the named institute); it is also oriented towards the requests of various fields to the human being in self-knowledge, in revealing his potential and in personal growth.

In Russia, for various reasons, including ideological and socio-political in the post-revolutionary years, the development of professional psychology went in a special way. Nevertheless, we highlight the events that became fundamental for the formation of Russian professional psychology, including some of those already mentioned.

1.

Bekhterev Vladimir Mikhailovich (1857-1927) - the great Russian psychologist, physiologist, neuropathologist. Based on the theory of reflex, he developed a science that was successively called “objective psychology”, “psychoreflexology”, and “reflexology”. Founder of the St. Petersburg Scientific Psychological School.

2.

The discovery by V. M. Bekhterev in 1885 of the first domestic experimental laboratory at the Department of Nervous Diseases of Kazan University (and soon the opening of psychological laboratories in other clinics of nervous and “mental” diseases), and after a decade - a similar laboratory in St. Petersburg and in 1908 - The Psychoneurological Institute in St. Petersburg, which was the world's first center for comprehensive human research. The discovery by G. I. Chelpanov of Russia's first psychological institute - the Psychological Institute at Moscow University (as already mentioned, he began work in 1912: the official opening took place in 1914). Note that in those years it was the largest psychological institution in the world.

Starting from pre-revolutionary times, the development of pedology was a practice-oriented direction that aimed at comprehensive study of the child (a literal translation of the word "pedology" - "science of the child"). In 1936, pedology ceased to exist by a special decree of the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party of Bolsheviks.

Chelpanov Georgy Ivanovich (1862-1936) - an outstanding Russian psychologist and philosopher, creator and first director of the Psychological Institute. In 1923, he was relieved of the post of director due to the fact that he did not share the philosophy of Marxism, and in the future he actually had no opportunity for active scientific activity.

as not corresponding to the ideological principles of that time.

The formation of the domestic psychology of labor and psychotechnology, especially intensively - in the 20s. XX century Creation in Moscow in 1925 of the Psychoanalytic Institute {I. D. Ermakov), soon closed for ideological reasons.

Formation of the main scientific schools of Russian psychology in the 20-30s. XX century

Reconstruction in 1943 by S. L. Rubinstein of the Department of Psychology and, on its basis, the Department of Psychology at the philosophical faculty

those of Moscow State University. Creation in 1945 by S. L. Rubinstein of the Psychology Sector at the Institute of Philosophy of the USSR Academy of Sciences.

Creation of the Society of Psychologists of the USSR. 10. The opening in 1966 of the first faculties of psychology - in Moscow (first dean - A.N. Leontyev) and Leningrad (first dean - B.F. Lomov) universities.

The holding in 1966 in Russia of the XVIII International

Rubinstein Sergey Leonidovich (1889-1960) - Doctor of Philosophy, Professor, Academician of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Corresponding Member of the USSR Academy of Sciences, Laureate of the State Prize. An outstanding Russian philosopher and psychologist, the creator of the personality-activity approach, the founder of a scientific school.

Leontyev Alexey Nikolaevich (1903-1979) - Doctor of Psychology, professor, academician of the Academy of Pedagogical Sciences, laureate of the Lenin Prize. An outstanding Russian psychologist, the creator of one of the most authoritative theories in Russian psychology - the “theory of activity”.

native psychological congress (Moscow) when, after a long break in relative scientific isolation, a

a thorough scientific dialogue between domestic and foreign psychology.

12. The creation in 1971 in Moscow of the Institute of Psychology of the USSR Academy of Sciences (the first director was B. F. Lomov).

2. Order No. 4406.

Lomov Boris Fedorovich (1927-1989) - Doctor of Psychology, professor, corresponding member of the USSR Academy of Sciences, author of fundamental works on the theory and practice of psychology. Director of the Institute of Psychology of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR since 1



13. Intensive development and organizational design of domestic practical psychology (80-90s of the XX century), in particular, psychological services, counseling and non-medical psychotherapy.

For these reasons, psychology in Russia developed for a long time primarily as an academic one (Decree of the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party of Bolsheviks, 1936 “On Pedological Perversions in the System of Narcompros”, dealt a blow not only to pedology, but also to practical psychology as a whole). In this regard, at present, Russian psychology, in many ways superior to the foreign one in scientific and theoretical terms, is forced to temporarily be partly in the role of a student in practical terms (D.I. Feldstein, 1999).

Feldstein David Iosifovich - Doctor of Psychology, Professor, Academician of the Russian Academy of Education and the Academy of Pedagogical Sciences, President of the Moscow Psychological and Social Institute. Specialist in the field of developmental psychology.

Later, you will become acquainted with some details of the development of psychology in a meaningful way when considering academic and applied psychology and psychological practice in the following sections.

Now let's approach the question from the other side. What problems - within the scope of their subject - is professional psychology involved in? To do this, we turn again to historical material and compare what was included in the sphere of interests of psychology in attempts to systematize it in different years; these attempts were reflected in schemes offering the distribution of psychological literature (and the number of publications was already close to 7000 at the end of the 19th century) according to the headings corresponding to the main lines of research.

For the first time, the question of the systematization of psychology was specifically raised at the IV International Psychological Congress in 1900. A specially created committee proposed the following scheme:

1. General section.

• Textbooks and systematizing work.

• General problems, methods, terminology and equipment.

• History of psychology and biography.

• Collections, scientific notes, dictionaries, bibliography.

2. Anatomy and physiology of the nervous system.

• General issues.

• Elements of the nervous system.

• The brain and its functions.

• Spinal cord, nerves and sympathetic nervous system.

• Reflex and automatic functions.

• Pathological anatomy.

3. Feelings.

• General issues. Synesthesia.

• Sense organs - general questions.

• Psychometrics.

• Psychophysics.

• Vision and oculomotor functions.

• Hearing.

• Other sensations.

• General pathology of sensations.

4. Characteristics of consciousness.

• General issues.

• Attention, apperception, selection.

• Associations.

• Habit, adaptation, adaptation.

• Work and fatigue.

• Temporary relationships in the mind, mental timing.

5. Cognitive processes.

• General issues.

• Perception and presentation, reading.

• Perception of time, space and movement.

• Memory and imagination.

• Judgment and faith, inference.

• Reflection and self-knowledge.

• Normal illusions and normal suggestion.

• General pathology of cognitive processes.

6. Affective sphere - feelings and emotions.

• General questions, pleasant and unpleasant.

• Emotions and their expression.

• General pathology of the senses.

7. Conscious striving and movement.

• General issues.

• Traffic organs.

• Instinct and impulse (imitation, play, etc.).

• Special motor functions (language and singing, handwriting and drawing, gait, other motor functions).

• Will and effort.

• Free will.

• General pathology of motor functions.

8. The highest manifestations of the mind.

• Logic and science, methodology.

• Ideals and values.

• Theory of knowledge.

• Aesthetics.

• Ethics.

• Religion.

9. Sleep, trance state and pathology.

• Sleep and dreams.

• Hypnosis and trance.

• Parapsychological studies.

• General pathology issues.

• Nervous diseases.

• Mental illness.

• Forensic Medicine.

10. Genetic, social and individual psychology.

• Evolution and heredity.

• Comparative psychology.

• Mental development.

• Individual psychology.
The psychology of groups.

• Psychology of peoples.

• Social Psychology.

• Racial psychology.

This was the structure of psychology at the beginning of the 20th century. Compare her now with what she looked like in the mid-60s. '

1. General section.

The history of psychology.

Philosophy.

Parapsychology.

Theories and systems.

Organization.

Education and training of psychologists.

Professional problems of psychology.

General manuals and guides.

Bibliographies and reviews.

2. Methodology and methodology.

Rogovin Mikhail Semenovich (1921-1994) - Doctor of Psychology, professor, specialist in the field of history and philosophical problems of psychology, methodology of psychological research, psychology of thinking and memory, author of more than 10 monographs and textbooks.

Models and mathematical models.

Mathematical statistics (experimental design, formulas and calculations, statistical analysis).

Work on calculating machines and programming. Tests (test design, standardization of tests, evaluation of tests).

The technique of experimentation and observation. Equipment.

We present both schemes with insignificant abbreviations according to the book: Rogovin M. S. Introduction to Psychology. - M., 1969; there they are given, respectively, from the publications of the Psychological Review, 1901, Jan. and Psychological Abstracts, 1965, Vol. 40, No. 1.

3. Experimental psychology.

• Theories.

• Psychophysics.

• Perception (illusions, time).

• Vision (perception, color vision, eye movement).

• Hearing (perception, discrimination of speech sounds, audiometry).

• Biochemistry of the senses.

• Kinesthesia and “general feeling”.

• The influence of the environment.

• Sleep, fatigue and dreams.

• Hypnosis and suggestibility.

• Motivation and emotions.

• Attention, waiting, installation.

• Motility.

• Learning.

• Memory.

• Thinking (problem solving, concepts).

• Decision and behavior in a situation of choice.

4. Physiological psychology.

• Neuroanatomy.

• Brain lesions.

• Stimulation of the brain.

• Electroencephalography.

• Physiology of the senses.

• Biochemical effects.

• Cardiovascular effects.

• Influence of the environment (stress).

• Genetics.

• Correlates of personality.

5. Animal psychology.

• Comparative psychology.

• Surveillance in vivo.

• Early experience.

• Emotion and motivation.

• Learning.

• Social and sexual behavior.

• Integrated processes.

6. Genetic psychology (developmental psychology).

• The period of infancy.

• Childhood.

• Teenage years.

• Maturity.

• Gerontology.

7. Social psychology.

• Culture and social processes.

• Sexual behavior.

• Relations and opinions.

• Group processes (leadership issues).

• Language and communication.

8. Personality.

• Intelligence.

• Creative skills.

• Personality measurements.

• Physical correlates.

9. Clinical psychology.

• Psychotherapy and analysis.

• Organizational issues of therapy and hospitalization.

• Psychodrama.

• Psychoanalytic interpretation.

• Psychodiagnosis.

• Pathology of behavior.

• Psychosomatics.

• Casuistry.

• Mental health and rehabilitation.

• Counseling (family and marriage, social problems).

• Defectology (blindness, deafness).

• Speech disorder.

• Neurological disorders.

• Mental retardation.

10. Pedagogical psychology.

• Programmed training.

• Addictions and accommodation.

• Testing.

• Physical education.

• Special types of training.

• Extracurricular leadership.

• Teaching staff.

11. Military psychology and personnel selection.

• Professional advice and guidance.

• Selection and distribution of posts.

• Training.

• Analysis of tasks and work operations.

• Accomplishment of work and satisfaction with it.

• Leadership and organizational matters.

• Special surroundings.

• Psychology of advertising and consumption.

• Engineering psychology.

• Psychology of transport professions and safety issues.

As you can see, the ideas about the structure of psychology have seriously changed: the gap between the natural science and philosophical approaches to the psyche is not so pronounced (although it persisted), the proportion of applied branches of psychology has increased, sections related to the study of higher nervous activity and psychoanalysis occupy a significant place.

The currently accepted rubricator used by library staff is cumbersome and, like the previous ones, does not avoid repetitions and intersections in the classification basis.

Let us now cite the rubrication of the branches of psychology adopted at the XXVI International Psychological Congress in 19961.

1. History and theory.

2. Research methods and statistics.

3. Animal behavior.

4. Sensory and motor processes.

5. Attention and perception.

6. Neuroscience.

7. Neuropsychology.

8. Emotions and motivation.

9. Conditionality and learning.

10. Memory and cognition.

11. Language, speech and communication.

12. Cognitive science and intelligent systems.

13. The human factor and ergonomics.

14. The stages of development.

15. Development processes.

16. Psychology of education.

17. Personal processes and supra-individual differences.

18. Social psychology.

19. Social problems.

20. Sexual differences.

21. Psychology and law.

22. Cross-cultural psychology.

23. Political psychology.

24. Clinical and consulting psychology.

25. The psychology of health.

26. Psychology as a scientific discipline. •

As you can see, creating a unified classification of psychological disciplines is an extremely difficult task. In our country, classification is most often used, focused on those industries that have received the greatest development in Russia and in which the majority of qualified specialists are employed. This classification corresponds to the list of specializations in which specialists are trained: 1. General psychology;

Provided in the reference guide: Modern psychology. - M., 1999.

2. Psychology of personality;

3. Social psychology;

4. Political psychology;

5. Management psychology;

6. Organizational psychology;

7. Legal psychology;

8. Labor psychology and engineering psychology;

9. Clinical (medical) psychology;

10. Psychophysiology;

11. Special psychology;

12. Development Psychology; developmental psychology;

13. Educational psychology;

14. Psychological counseling.

In the future, you will become acquainted with some of these industries in more detail.

Literature

1. Bondarenko A. F. Psychological assistance: theory and practice. - M.: Publishing House of the Institute of Psychotherapy, 2000.

2. Hessen S. I. Fundamentals of pedagogy. Introduction to applied philosophy. - M .: School-Press, 1995.

3. Hippenreiter Yu. B. Introduction to General Psychology. - M.: Publishing House of Moscow State University, 1988.

4. Климов Е. А. Психология профессионального самоопределения. -Ростов-на-Дону: Феникс, 1996.

5. Климов Е. А. Введение в психологию профессий. — М.: Культура и спорт, ЮНИТИ, 1998.

6. Климов Е. А., Лескова О. Г. История психологии труда в России. — М.: Изд-во МГУ, 1992.

7. Миллс Р. Властвующая элита. - М.: Изд-во иностранной литературы, 1959.

8. Роговин М. С. Введение в психологию. — М., 1969.

9. Современная психология. — М.: Инфра-М, 1999.

10. Фельдштейн Д. И. Введение в психологию. Видеозапись лекций. — М.: МПСИ, 1999.

11. Фромм Э. Человек для себя. — Мн.: Коллегиум, 1992.
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