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History of psychological knowledge in other sciences

The origins of scientific psychology must be sought, first of all, in the depths of philosophy. The ancient philosophers expressed the concept of "soul" the cause of life, breath, knowledge.

Scientific psychology at that time was not a special professional activity, there were no professional psychologists. Scientific and psychological knowledge accumulated in philosophical, medical, legal works, as a result of the work of philosophers, doctors, lawyers.

The most famous contribution to the psychology of the ancient Greek philosophers. They believed that the soul is present in nature wherever there is movement and warmth.

Democritus (460-370 BC) thought that the soul is a material substance, which consists of fire atoms, spherical, light and mobile. Democritus tried to explain all phenomena of the spiritual life by physical and even mechanical reasons.

The idea of ​​Socrates (470-399 BC), one of the most remarkable thinkers of ancient Greece, was to help the interlocutor to find the true answer with the help of selected questions in a certain way, and thus bring it from vague ideas to logically clear knowledge subjects discussed. Considered a wide range of "everyday concepts" of justice and injustice, goodness and beauty, courage, etc. The motto of Socrates said: "Know yourself," which implied an analysis of actions, moral evaluations and norms of human behavior in various life situations. This led to a new understanding of the essence of the soul, to a new attitude of man to himself as the carrier of intellectual and moral qualities.

The ancient Greek philosopher Plato (428-348 BC) paid much attention to the study of the soul. In his writings, he gave a classification of mental phenomena. He believed that the soul consists of three parts - lustful, passionate and intelligent. The predominance of one or another part of the soul in man explained his individuality. The process of thinking Plato considered the recollection of what the soul knew in its cosmic life, but forgotten when moving into the body. Exploring cognitive processes, Plato spoke about sensation, memory, and thinking. And he was the first scientist who began to talk about memory as an independent mental process. He discovered the role of inner speech and the activity of thinking in the process of cognition.

A more complex idea of ​​the soul was in the ancient Greek philosopher and encyclopedist Aristotle (384-322 BC). According to his teaching, the world consists of a set of the smallest indivisible particles - atoms with different size and mobility. The smallest and most mobile of them are the atoms of the soul. Aristotle's treatise "On the Soul" was the first special psychological essay in which the first systematic doctrine on the psyche was created. For centuries it remained the main guide in psychology. Aristotle himself is rightfully considered the founder of psychology, as, indeed, of a number of other sciences.
The soul, according to Aristotle, is a way of organizing a living body. It was believed that the soul is inherent in all living organisms (including plants). Aristotle proposed a scientific explanation for the five main organs of sense: sight, hearing, touch, smell and taste, and also for the first time gave a systematic description of mental phenomena.

In the Middle Ages, the soul was represented by the divine essence of man and this imposed a ban on the study of its scientific methods. The church had the exclusive right to the knowledge of the soul. Religious philosophy and theology as a teaching about God became the main sources of knowledge about the soul. This situation persisted until the XVII century.

In the Renaissance, there was an interest in the natural science research of the soul. The greatest contribution to the development of psychological knowledge was made by R. Descartes, B. Spinoza, T. Hobbes, J. Locke. The French philosopher Rene Descartes (1596-1650) was one of the first to try to explain mental phenomena by organic processes occurring in the human brain. He introduced the concept of reflex as an automatic way to respond to external influences. With this concept, he explained the behavior of animals and humans. However, he did not find a natural-science explanation of mental phenomena. Descartes identified self-observation (introspection) as the main method of psychology. Later, in the 18th and 19th centuries, the inner world of a person was most often studied by the introspective method.

The Dutch philosopher Benedict Spinoza (1632-1677) wrote that the soul is closely connected with the body and does not exist without it. In Spinoza, the science of the soul became not only a descriptive, but also an explanatory system of knowledge.

The English philosopher Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) believed that human behavior and the psyche of man are subject to the laws of mechanics, and explained the differences in the abilities of people in a natural science way.

Another English philosopher John Locke (1632-1704) is considered the founder of empirical (experimental) psychology. He believed that the main task of psychology should not be philosophizing about the soul, but obtaining and analyzing objective scientific facts. Empirical knowledge, that is, knowledge gained in experience, should be the basis of psychology.

English scientist David Gartley (1705-1757), developing the ideas of J. Locke, became one of the founders of associative psychology. The association was understood as a logical connection of some mental phenomena with others. According to D. Gartley, the whole spiritual life is based on the association (binding) of three types of elements with each other: sensations, thoughts (ideas) and feelings. He turned the mechanism of association into a universal principle of explaining mental activity.

In the 18th century, scientists find a link between mental phenomena and brain activity (before this, the mind was located in the heart, liver, or other parts of the body).
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History of psychological knowledge in other sciences

  1. The history of the use of psychological knowledge in medicine
    Medical psychology examines the psychological aspects of the doctor’s activities and patient behavior. It studies the mental manifestations of diseases, the role of the psyche in their occurrence, course, treatment, and also in promoting human health. The value of psychology for medicine was recognized long ago. As early as the 18th century, the great reformer of psychiatric care in France, Pinel, in his
  2. The history of the origin and development of psychological knowledge of military psychology
    Interest in the soldier’s soul has been shown by many prominent commanders since ancient times. Alexander the Great spoke about the need to temper the spirit of the warrior. Russian commanders also paid great attention to the psychological readiness of soldiers for battle. Of particular importance was the progressive views of A.V. Suvorov (1730-1800). Suvorov substantiated and created in practice a system of psychological
  3. The relationship of psychology and other modern sciences
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  4. Place Valeology among other sciences
    Valeology is a scientific direction based on knowledge of age-related anatomy, physiology, a wide range of medical sciences (psychology, hygiene, etc.), sociology, pedagogy, economics and the purpose of the formation of scientific knowledge and human health needs. It is assumed that the science of health should be integral, developing at the intersection of biology, genetics, medicine, pedagogy,
  5. Place of psychology in the system of other sciences
    The problem of the position of psychology in the system of sciences worried many researchers. Most of them paid attention to the fact that psychology integrates the knowledge of all scientific disciplines that study a person and this explains its special place in the system of scientific knowledge. To determine the place of psychology in the system of other sciences, it is necessary to clarify their classification, taking into account the characteristics
  6. Thesis for the degree of candidate of psychological sciences. Psychological features of subjective ideas about the life prospects of participants in local wars, 2004
    Introduction Theoretical and methodological basis for the study of subjective ideas about the life prospects of participants in local wars. Phenomenology and content of the concept of life perspective as a component of the life path and psychological time of an individual. Psychological features of the personality of participants in local conflicts in the context of their return from the psycho-traumatic situation of war
  7. Abstract of dissertation for the degree of candidate of psychological sciences. Socio-psychological characteristics of the image of the armed forces of Russia in the youth environment, 2005
    Specialty: 19.00.05 - Social Psychology (Psychological Sciences) The dissertation was performed at the Department of Psychology of the Military
  9. Types of psychological knowledge
    The accumulation of psychological knowledge took place in various sciences and spheres of human activity, wherever knowledge about the spiritual world and human behavior was needed. According to some authors, the word "psychology" appeared in literature in the XVI century, according to others - in the XVIII. The opinions of historians about how the word "psychology" arose diverge. Literally translated from Greek, it means
  10. Types of psychological knowledge (by VN Karandashev)
    Types of psychological knowledge Basic concepts: Life psychology is a specific knowledge about people, acquired, accumulated and used by a person in everyday life during historical development to influence certain people. Everyday psychology is a kind of everyday knowledge; generalized knowledge of people in a relatively closed group
  11. The complex of professional psychological knowledge and skills
    The most important quality of a psychologist's activity is professional competence, or professionalism, which includes professional knowledge and skills. The psychologist must be a versatile specialist. Therefore, his professional erudition includes not only knowledge in the field of psychology, but also a certain body of knowledge in the field of philosophy, history, cultural studies,
  12. Monitoring the survival of knowledge acquired in the VII semester (and occupation in the VIII semester). Curation of patients for writing a case history
    Lesson plan: 1. Test control of the material covered 2. Solving situational problems 3. Curation of patients for writing a history of diseases 4. Medical history scheme Pay attention to: history taking, pregnancy, childbirth, feeding in the first year of life; neuro-mental development; assessment of physical development; differential diagnosis, etiopathogenesis and treatment of this
    Like any system of scientific knowledge, psychology can give the maximum benefit to the fleet if it becomes the property of the majority of officers and foremen and is adopted by them. The way from solved problems by theory to their mass application in practice is a difficult one, requiring special guidance. Nowadays, when science becomes a productive force, when the rapid development of life
  14. The world of psychological knowledge
    The term "psychology" is formed from two ancient Greek words psyche (soul) and logos (knowledge, teaching) and literally means "science of the soul." Psychology studies the properties, mechanisms and patterns of development and existence of the soul, or psyche. The psyche is the spiritual world of a person who appears to each of us in the form of various experiences, thoughts, images, memories, desires, goals,
  15. Abstract of the dissertation for the degree of candidate of psychological sciences. Gender stereotypes in the youth mass media, 2008

  16. Abstract of dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Psychology. Psychology of the professional subjectivity of officers of the armed forces of the Russian Federation, 2007
    Specialty 19.00.03 - work psychology, engineering psychology, ergonomics (psychological sciences). The dissertation was carried out at the Department of Psychology of the Military
  17. The structure of military-psychological knowledge in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries
    The rapid development of military-psychological thought in Russia at the end of the 17th and the beginning of the 18th centuries was closely connected with the activities of Peter I (1672-1725), which created a regular army. Peter I was guided by the conviction that the main force in a war is a man - a soldier, who "must constantly be trained in how to act in battle, and teach him to act in reality". Peter I repeatedly
  18. The history of the formation of the psychological profession
    Developing at first as one of the philosophical disciplines, psychology, then, taking a number of ideas from experimental physiology, separated into an independent science, which set the task of studying the soul, which at that time was understood as consciousness (and consciousness as that which a person is immediately aware of). This happened at the end of the 19th century, and the symbolic date of birth of psychology as a discipline is 1879.
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