about the project
Medical news
For authors
Licensed books on medicine
<< Previous Next >>

Classification of Sciences

The term "science" also refers to individual branches of scientific knowledge (psychology is one of them), which differ from each other in a number of essential characteristics. In order to further determine the place of psychology in the system of sciences, we consider this in more detail.

First of all, sciences differ in their object. By the object of a particular science is meant that side of reality, the study of which this science is aimed at. Often the object is fixed in the very name of science. For example, geology is the science of the Earth, biology is the science of wildlife, etc.

At the same time, no science is able to describe its object in its entirety for various reasons: knowledge is infinite, how infinite the world is, and no object can be described in all respects; in this regard, a particular science is forced to limit the scope of its interests, otherwise it is in danger of "spreading" into areas that it is not able to cover.

For example, biology does not deal with the structure of atoms of molecules of living organisms or the laws of the correct thinking of a person - a living creature, leaving this to physics and logic, respectively, or going out for discussion into “frontier” sciences such as biophysics).

In addition, any science is limited in its approach to the object by the tradition in which it was formed, by the categorical (conceptual) apparatus, the language that has developed in it, the methods of analysis and empirical research that dominate it, etc. . (The forced specialization of sciences poses a serious problem in terms of building a unified scientific picture of the world: the difference in approaches and languages ​​makes it difficult to generalize; in this connection, “frontier sciences” play an important role).

In this regard, the subject of science is distinguished from the object of science, that is, by what sides the studied object is represented in science. If an object exists independently of science, then the subject is formed together with science and is fixed in its system of categories. We will analyze this using an example.

Biology is the science of wildlife. Nature exists regardless of whether biology exists and, in general, whether someone is trying to study it, that is, objectively. Biology, however, studies only what it considers to be related to living nature and its manifestations, and this depends on the prevailing theories.

Thus, the object and the subject of science do not coincide: the subject does not fix all sides of the object, but it may paradoxically include what is missing in the object.

For example, alchemy studied the laws of transmutation of metals, which is now considered in most cases unrealistic.

In a certain respect, we can say that the development of science is the development of its subject. The problem of the relationship between the object and the subject of science is one of the controversial. In the literature, one can find the opinion that an object is that part of an object that science stands out as specific for itself.

For example, a person acts as an object of anthropology, biology, ethnography, physiology, logic, psychology, etc., reflecting his (subject) in it. It seems to us, however, that here we are not talking about an object of science, but about a possible object of study (for example, psychology studies not only man).

Let us return, however, to the distinction of sciences according to the principle of the object. We use the classification proposed by B. M. Kedrov. Kedrov distinguishes two main scientific objects: they are nature (organic and inorganic) and man (that is, human society and thinking). The line between them, of course, is conditional.

According to the features of these objects, the natural sciences and the humanities are distinguished; the latter are divided into social and philosophical. Thus, three main sections of scientific knowledge are identified, each of which represents a complex of sciences.
In addition to the three main sections, there are large sections located at the junction of the main. This classification is presented in the form of the so-called “triangle of sciences”. This is a simplified scheme, in particular, psychology has been excluded from it so far, to which B. M. Kedrov takes a special place.

It is likely that the question may arise: why did the human sciences turn out to be separate from the natural sciences? And should any science about man be considered humanitarian? After all, a person may well be represented as a natural creature endowed with a physical body in which various biochemical processes take place. Of course, a number of human sciences (for example, human anatomy and physiology) are natural. Speaking about the humanities, we mean that they study something specific for a person and not amenable to (or, let's be careful, hard to give) those principles of explanation and knowledge that are accepted in the sciences of nature. If the changes occurring with natural objects do not depend on the will of the objects themselves (the will, as is commonly believed, is inherent only to man), then the person, in the words of S. L. Rubinstein, is the center of the restructuring of being, that is, the subject. A stone rolls down a mountain not because it wants it - external forces act on it.

Of course, external forces also act on a person, but his activity is determined not only (and often not so much) by them, but his internal position, his values, aspirations, worldview, vision of a life perspective; in other words, man is a self-determining creature, that is, man himself determines his life.

Studying animal communities does not provide an adequate understanding of the life of human society (although there have been attempts to draw analogies). Understanding a person as a special phenomenon, essentially fundamentally different from an animal, requires a special approach to its study. If, when studying nature, one can try to reproduce some of its fragments in the laboratory - in the sense that it is possible to simulate situations of exposure to the object of some external factors, and the changes that occur with the object as a result, be considered an analogue of what really happens in nature, then as applied to a person, this at least turns out to be insufficient, and in some humanities such a reproduction is generally impossible - for example, in history. If, when studying natural phenomena, it is appropriate to “extract” individual fragments from nature for research, then a person as a most complex single spiritual-bodily being should ideally be considered in the whole diversity of his individual and social being - which, of course, is extremely difficult, but as a line of thought and Research can be asked.

Thus, we can talk not only about the natural sciences and the humanities, distinguished by object: we can talk about two different approaches, two methods of scientific thinking - natural science and the humanities. As you will see later, this has a direct bearing on psychology.

Along with the classification of sciences according to the object, other ways of distinguishing them are possible. For example, the division of sciences into fundamental and applied is accepted.

• Fundamental (sometimes called “pure”) are sciences that know the world regardless of how much practical use of the knowledge gained is possible.

• Applied sciences, on the contrary, are oriented towards practice, applying to it the knowledge gained in fundamental sciences, and serve the immediate needs of society.
<< Previous Next >>
= Skip to textbook content =

Classification of Sciences

  1. Classification of Sciences
    So far, we have been talking about science in general; we needed this to determine the features of the scientific method of cognition in its difference and similarity with others, and thereby determine the approach to psychology as a science. The term "science" also refers to individual branches of scientific knowledge (psychology is one of them), which differ from each other in a number of essential characteristics. In order to
    So far, we have been talking about science in general; we needed this in order to determine the features of the scientific method of cognition in its difference and similarity with others, and "^ to determine the approach to psychology as a science. The term" science "also refers to individual branches of scientific knowledge (psychology is one of them), which differ in each other. from a friend for a number of essential characteristics.
  4. The place of psychology in the system of sciences
    In the XIX century, the classification of sciences developed by the creator of the philosophy of positivism, the French scientist O. Comte, was very popular. In Comte's classification, there was no place for psychology at all. The father of positivism believed that psychology had not yet become a positive science. For the first half of the XIX century, this statement was generally fair. • Since then, much has changed: psychology
  5. The role of the Academy of Sciences
    With the involvement of Russia in the general process of world cultural and scientific development, with the establishment of strong and constant scientific ties with the advanced countries of Western Europe, the creation of scientific institutions in the country became increasingly urgent. The Academy of Sciences, conceived by Peter I as a centralized state form of organization of scientific research, was to become a distribution center in
  6. The relationship of psychology and other modern sciences
    A person as a subject of research can be considered from various points of view: as a biological object, as a social being, as a carrier of consciousness. Moreover, each person is unique and has his own personality. A variety of manifestations of man as a natural and social phenomenon has led to a significant number of sciences that study man. All sciences that study man,
  7. The place of psychology in the system of other sciences
    The problem of the position of psychology in the system of sciences worried many researchers. Most of them drew attention to the fact that psychology integrates the knowledge of all scientific disciplines that study a person and this explains its special place in the system of scientific knowledge. To determine the place of psychology in the system of other sciences, it is necessary to clarify their classification, taking into account the characteristic
  8. The place of valeology in the system of sciences
    Valeology is a complex of sciences, or an interdisciplinary direction, based on the idea of ​​the genetic, psychophysiological reserves of the body systems and the body as a whole, which ensure the stability of physiological, biological, psychological and sociocultural development and preservation of human health under the influence of changing external and internal
  9. The connection of psychology with other sciences and its place in the system of sciences
    Modern psychology occupies a special place among other scientific disciplines, because combines in a single whole the most diverse knowledge about a person. The Swiss psychologist J. Piaget noted that “... psychology occupies a key position in the system of sciences. On the one hand, psychology depends on all other sciences and sees in psychological life the result of physico-chemical, biological, social,
  10. The place of valeology among other sciences
    Valeology is a scientific field based on knowledge of age-related anatomy, physiology, a wide range of medical sciences (psychology, hygiene, etc.), sociology, pedagogy, economics and aimed at the formation of scientific knowledge and human health needs. It is assumed that the science of health should be integral, developing at the intersection of biology, genetics, medicine, pedagogy,
    The development of science about healthy people is a secret. Vinikaє bagato pereshkod ob'ktivnogo y sub'ktivnoy character. I often want to because of the fact that it’s not in order to special technical terminology, to navigate the understanding of “healthy” is treated ambiguously. Not clearly marked is a Valeological Institute of the Middle Sciences. Є Ask for the з з з г г є є ю. So, at the Institute of Ecology and Toxicology (metro Kyiv) N.
  12. Acmeology in the system of professional sciences
    The science of the highest achievements in the field of professional excellence is called "acmeology". The word "acmeology" goes back to the ancient Greek "akme", which, in turn, comes from the word "axis" ("point") and meaning: "the highest degree of something, color, flowering time"; "en akmy einai" (to be in acme) means: "to be in full color, to the highest degree of development" [1]. Ancient greek
  13. Acmeology in the system of human sciences
    Initially, acmeology was understood and developed as a section of developmental psychology. However, as noted above, its scientific status is acquired as soon as the object is not a wide range of all possible characteristics of a mature person as such, but above all, the mastery of his professional activity, his professionalism, from the point of view of which acmeology is involved in
  14. Psychology and its place with the system of sciences
    Psychology and its place with the system
  15. ASA Classification of Patient Physical Condition (American Association of Anesthetists Classification)
    Grade 1 is a normal healthy subject. Grade 2 - a patient with mild systemic disorders. 3rd grade - a patient with significant systemic disorders that limit activity, but do not lead to disability. 4th grade - a patient with a severely disabling disease that poses a threat to life. 5th grade - a dying patient who may die within
  16. The subject of acmeology and its place in the system of sciences
    The subject of acmeology and its place in the system
  17. The subject of acmeology and its place in the system of sciences
    The subject of acmeology and its place in the system
  19. The role and place of acme among other gum sciences
    Acmeology is a science that arose at the intersection of natural, social and humanitarian disciplines and studying the laws and mechanisms of human development at the stage of his maturity and especially when he reaches the highest level in this development. A special fundamental role for acmeology is played by psychology, within the framework of which it has gained recognition and is successfully developing. One of the first
Medical portal "MedguideBook" © 2014-2019