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CLASSIFICATION OF SCIENCES

So far, we have been talking about science in general; we needed this in order to determine the features of the scientific method of cognition in its difference and similarity with others and to determine the approach to psychology as a science.

The term "science" also refers to individual branches of scientific knowledge (psychology is one of them), which differ from each other in a number of essential characteristics. In order to further determine the place of psychology in the system of sciences, we consider this in more detail.

First of all, sciences differ in their object. By the object of a particular science is meant that side of reality, the study of which this science is aimed at. Often an object is fixed in the very name of science: for example, geology is the science of the Earth, biology is the science of wildlife, etc. However, no science is able to describe its object in its entirety for various reasons: knowledge is infinite, as infinite the world, and no object can be described in all respects; in this regard, a particular science is forced to limit its sphere of interests, otherwise it is in danger of "spreading" into areas that it is not able to cover (for example, biology does not deal with the structure of atoms of molecules of living organisms or the laws of correct human thinking— living creature, leaving it to physics and logic, respectively, or going out to discuss them in "borderline" sciences such as biophysics). In addition, any science is limited in its approach to the object by the tradition in which it was formed, by the categorical (conceptual) apparatus, the language that has developed in it, the methods of analysis and empirical research that dominate it, etc. . *

In this regard, the subject of science is distinguished from the object of science, that is, by what sides the studied object is represented in science. If an object exists independently of science, then the subject is formed together with science and is fixed in its system of categories. Let's take a look at this as an example. Biology is the science of wildlife. Nature exists regardless of whether biology exists and, in general, whether someone is trying to study it, that is, objectively. Biology, however, studies only what it considers to be related to living nature and its manifestations, and this depends on the prevailing theories. Thus, the object and subject of science do not coincide:

* The forced specialization of sciences is a serious problem in terms of building a unified scientific picture of the world: the difference in approaches and languages ​​makes it difficult to generalize; in this regard, the “frontier sciences” play an important role.

Met does not record all sides of the object, but it may paradoxically include what is missing in the object (for example, alchemy studied the patterns of metal switching, which is now considered unrealistic in most cases). In a certain respect, we can say that the development of science is the development of its subject *

Let us return, however, to the distinction of sciences according to the principle of the object. We will use the classification proposed by B. M. Kedrov. B. M. Kedrov distinguishes two main scientific objects: they are nature (organic and inorganic) and man (i.e., human society and thinking). The line between them, of course, is conditional.

According to the features of these objects, the natural sciences and the humanities are distinguished; the latter are divided into social and philosophical.
Thus, three main sections of scientific knowledge are identified, each of which represents a complex of sciences. In addition to the three main sections, there are large sections located at the junction of the main. This classification is presented in the form of the so-called "triangle of sciences":

We somewhat simplified the original scheme, in particular, without including psychology, which

* The problem of the relationship between the object and the subject of science is one of the controversial. In literature one can find the opinion that an object is that part of an object that science stands out as specific for itself. For example, a person acts as an object of anthropology, biology, ethnography, physiology, logic, psychology, etc., reflecting his (subject) in it. It seems to us, however, that here we are not talking about an object of science, but about a possible object of study (for example, psychology studies not only man).

B. M. Kedrov gives a special place. Stop reading and think about where you can determine the place of psychology (based on your current ideas); we will come back to this later.

Along with the classification of sciences according to the object, other ways of distinguishing them are possible. For example, the division of sciences into fundamental and applied is accepted. Fundamental (sometimes called “pure”) are sciences that know the world regardless of how much practical use of the knowledge gained is possible. Applied sciences, on the contrary, are oriented toward practice, applying to it the knowledge gained in the fundamental sciences, and serve the immediate needs of society. Consider in what respect psychology speaks in relation to this distinction.

So, we briefly discussed what science is and what are its main varieties. Now we can discuss what psychology is like a science.

To do this, consider the following issues:

1. What is the object and subject of psychology?

2. What is its place in the system of sciences?

3. What is its structure?

4. What methods does she have? The answers to these questions, in fact, will be an introduction to psychology.

EXPLANATORY DICTIONARY TERMS

science method

object of science subject of science humanities natural science fundamental science applied science problem

hypothesis law

empirical data ordinary knowledge artistic knowledge religious knowledge empirical generalization theoretical generalization

Questions and tasks for self-testing.

1. What is the specificity of the scientific method of cognition of the world in relation to the formation of a picture of the world in everyday (everyday) knowledge, in art, religion?

2. On what grounds can science be classified and how?

3. Draw from memory the "triangle of sciences" by B. M. Kedrov.

4 Reproduce the general logic of scientific research.

Question for reflection:

Does the scientific method guarantee the most effective advancement of a person in the knowledge of truth — from your point of view?

Justify the answer, whatever it may be.
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CLASSIFICATION OF SCIENCES

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