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The place of psychology in the system of sciences

In the 19th century, the classification of sciences developed by the creator of the philosophy of positivism, the French scientist O. Comte, was very popular. In Comte's classification, there was no place for psychology at all. The father of positivism believed that psychology had not yet become a positive science. For the first half of the XIX century, this statement was generally fair.

• Since then, much has changed: psychology has emerged as an independent science, to a large extent has become "positive." The classifications of sciences were subsequently compiled repeatedly. Moreover, almost all authors unequivocally pointed to a special, central place of psychology among other sciences. Many well-known psychologists expressed the idea that in the future psychology will take a leading place in the structure of human knowledge, that psychology should be the basis for the sciences of the spirit.

• The intersection of spheres of interests and connections in modern science and practice is quite obvious. Therefore, in psychology at the present time there are many interdisciplinary areas of research and practical work. Examples of this kind are: management, conflict management, ethnology, the field of public relations. It is sometimes difficult to distinguish between the spheres of influence of different sciences in the study and practical solution of these problems. Therefore, the integration of sciences becomes relevant and the ability of psychologists to work in close contact with specialists from other sciences and areas of practical activity is important.

• The diversity of the problems of psychology makes it difficult to accurately characterize its place among them. For a long time there have been discussions about whether psychology is a natural or humanitarian science. There can be no definite answer to this question, since some branches of psychology are more associated with the humanities (for example, personality psychology, social psychology), while others with the natural sciences (for example, neuropsychology, pathopsychology).

• However, such a linear division of all sciences into the humanities and the natural seems somewhat outdated now. Nonlinear classification was developed by the domestic philosopher and scientist B.M. Kedrov. Kedrov distinguishes three groups of scientific disciplines: natural, social and philosophical. Schematically, this can be represented in the form of a triangle, the vertices of which correspond to the natural (upper), social (left) and philosophical (right) disciplines. Psychology has close ties with all three groups of sciences, therefore it is located inside the triangle, since human thinking (one of the essential sections of psychology) is studied not only by psychology, but also philosophy and logic. Psychology, therefore, has connections with all scientific disciplines, but the closest to philosophy

• Science and practice feel the need for a unified theory of human knowledge, for the convergence and integration of all means of cognition of a person. Putting a human problem as a common one for all modern science fundamentally changes the position of psychology in the system of sciences, since it is precisely psychology that can become a link between all areas of human knowledge, a means of combining various sections of natural science and social sciences in a new, holistic knowledge of man.

• Overcoming interdisciplinary disunity in the understanding of a person, creating an overall picture of his world is possible only by considering him as a kind of system. In his book, “Man as an Object of Knowledge,” B. G. Ananiev points out: “Human knowledge is the area where the systematic approach is organically determined and intensively developed. Here a synthesis of knowledge should be carried out, lying as if in different planes, but invariably crossing the plane of psychological knowledge. As a result, the components of psychological knowledge are included in the research of the most diverse humanities and natural sciences, and in psychology new perspectives of understanding the psychic open up. ”

• Domestic psychologist B.F. Lomov wrote that the most important function of psychology is that it "is an integrator of all scientific disciplines, the object of study of which is man." Psychology interacts with other sciences through the branches of psychological science: with the social sciences through social psychology, with the natural ones through psychophysiology, comparative psychology, with the medical ones through medical psychology, with the pedagogical ones through developmental psychology and educational psychology, with the technical ones through engineering psychology , etc.

• Psychology can develop only by maintaining a close relationship with other sciences, which do not replace it, but provide important information so that it can successfully reveal its own subject.

• In 1966, the prominent Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget gave a lecture on the place of psychology in the system of sciences at the International Psychological Congress in Moscow. His main idea was that the future of psychology depends on its connections with mathematics, physics, biology, sociology, linguistics, political economy, logic - a huge constellation of sciences that form the world of modern knowledge.
Psychology, according to Piaget, is at the center of this world.

• Philosophy. The connections of psychology with philosophy are traditional, since until the 19th century scientific psychological knowledge was accumulated within the framework of the philosophical sciences, psychology was part of philosophy. Until recently (the first faculties of psychology in our country appeared in 1966 at Moscow State University and Leningrad State University), psychology was studied at the philosophical faculties of universities, and some of its sections (in particular, general psychology, where definitions of basic concepts of science are given) are closely intertwined with philosophy. In modern psychology, there are many philosophical and psychological problems: the subject and methodology of psychological research, the origin of human consciousness, the study of higher forms of thinking, the place and role of man in social relations, the meaning of life, conscience and responsibility, spirituality, loneliness and happiness. The collaboration of psychologists and philosophers in the study of these problems can be fruitful.

• Biological sciences. The connections of psychology with the biological sciences are due to the fact that the human psyche has a natural basis. Therefore, many psychological problems must be solved by the interaction of psychologists and biologists. Particularly fruitful is the interaction with physiology. At the junction of these two sciences, psychophysiology appeared. A deep physiological understanding of the brain helps in solving many psychological problems.

• Medicine helps psychology to better understand the possible mechanisms of mental disorders of people and find ways for its treatment (psychocorrection and psychotherapy). At the intersection of medicine and psychology are such branches of psychology as medical psychology and psychotherapy.

• Sociology as an independent science is closely connected with social psychology, which is the bridge that connects the thoughts, feelings and attitudes of individuals with the phenomena of mass consciousness. In addition, sociology provides psychology with facts of the social activities of people, which are then used by psychology. The connection between psychology and sociology is provided by social psychology.

• Technical sciences are also associated with psychology, as they often have the problem of “joining” complex technical systems and humans. These issues are addressed by engineering psychology and the psychology of labor.

• History. Modern man is a product of historical development, in which there was an interaction of biological and mental factors - from the biological process of natural selection to the mental processes of speech, thinking and labor. Historical psychology studies the change in the psyche of people in the process of historical development and the role of the psychological qualities of historical figures on the course of history.

• Pedagogy provides psychology with information about the main directions and patterns of training and education of people, allowing to develop recommendations on the psychological support of these processes. The connection between these close sciences is provided by educational psychology and developmental psychology.

• Math statistics.

• Anthropology (broadly interpreted), is a complex discipline that is designed to combine all the private achievements of special sciences into a single whole

• The intersection of spheres of interests and connections in modern science and practice is quite obvious. Therefore, in psychology at the present time there are many interdisciplinary areas of research and practical work. Examples of this kind are: management, conflict management, ethnology, the field of public relations. It is sometimes difficult to distinguish between the spheres of influence of different sciences in the study and practical solution of these problems. Therefore, the integration of sciences becomes relevant and the ability of psychologists to work in close contact with specialists from other sciences and areas of practical activity is important.

• The diversity of the problems of psychology makes it difficult to accurately characterize its place among them. For a long time there have been discussions about whether psychology is a natural or humanitarian science. There can be no definite answer to this question, since some branches of psychology are more associated with the humanities (for example, personality psychology, social psychology), while others with the natural sciences (for example, neuropsychology, pathopsychology).

• Thus, psychology has developed close ties with the scientific disciplines of all groups: natural, humanitarian and technical. An analysis of the content of psychological knowledge shows that an exact determination of which of the above groups can be attributed to psychology itself is not possible. Psychology develops at the intersection of all three areas of scientific research.
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The place of psychology in the system of sciences

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    The problem of the position of psychology in the system of sciences worried many researchers. Most of them drew attention to the fact that psychology integrates the knowledge of all scientific disciplines that study a person and this explains its special place in the system of scientific knowledge. To determine the place of psychology in the system of other sciences, it is necessary to clarify their classification, taking into account the characteristic
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