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Model specialist for A.K. Markova

A person in labor, as he improves, from a simple performer, an employee turns into a subject of labor, who sets and realizes his goals in labor, then into a specialist who skilled in performing labor on the basis of special training, and later into a professional who carries out his work on the basis of its high standards; sometimes a person develops further, becoming a creator, an innovator in labor, enriching the experience of a profession.

The society is striving to make as many workers as possible specialists, to give them professional education, special training. In the psychology of labor, a specialist’s model is being developed - as a reflection of the volume and structure of professional and socio-psychological qualities, knowledge, skills, together representing its generalized characteristic as a member of society.

Distinguish:

• model of a specialist (working, functioning);

• specialist training model; it is believed that the training model is built to organize vocational training and is based on the model of a specialist.

When building a specialist model, the following options are possible:

• a model of a specialist’s activity, which may include a description of the types of professional activity, the scope and structure of professional activity, situations of professional activity and how to solve them, including typical, professional tasks and functions, professional difficulties, typical institutions and jobs;

• a model of the specialist’s personality, which includes the necessary qualities and properties of the employee.

The personality model of a specialist is a description of the totality of his qualities that ensure the successful fulfillment of tasks arising in the production sphere, as well as self-training and self-development of an employee. It is advisable to select and develop personal qualities for each type of professional activity. For example, professional tasks are described for the engineer’s activity model (special technical, economic and organizational tasks, personnel selection and placement tasks, advanced training); in the same place, in the personality model of the engineer, psychological qualities, skills and knowledge for each type of professional activity are developed; type of organization and unit, positions from primary to higher.

A number of wishes for the specialist model and for the specialist training model are noted:

• the model of a specialist may be different for a young, novice specialist and an experienced, successful specialist, because with the degree of professionalization and at different stages, a specialist will be characterized by a different ratio of qualities. Some authors believe that it is better to build a model of the activity and personality of an already established specialist, while others note that it is erroneous, for example, to overestimate requirements in a professiogram and rely only on the ideal and not on the average employee;

• the specialist’s model should include components that definitely affect the effectiveness of the activity and provide control over it, are easily diagnosed, creating the possibility of intervention and correction;

• the model of specialists who have the same specialty, but received different specializations, can be very different;

• the specialist training model is based on the specialist model and includes the types of educational and cognitive activities for mastering professional activities, curricula and programs, educational measures, forms of communication with production, and qualification characteristics of specialists.
We must be able to build a specialist model and translate it into a specialist training model.

A number of considerations are expressed in the literature about the varieties of specialist models. A variant of the specialist’s model is a professional qualification model, which reflects: types of professional activity in different positions and various workplaces, duties and functions, qualities, knowledge and skills. Such models are necessary for the selection and placement of personnel, for certification, to draw up a program for the training and retraining of specialists.

The qualification characteristic of a specialist reflects the specialty (s) and level of qualification. This characteristic may take the form of a specialist profile. The profile indicates the types of professional activity, usually no more than two or three, for example, an engineer-researcher-designer or engineer-designer-technologist. Models of specialists of narrow and wide profile are possible. The qualification characteristic is also called the normative model - these are generalized requirements for the activities and personality of a specialist, a specialist’s passport. A qualification profile is an expression of the qualities an employee needs in quantitative terms.

In general, a specialist model may include the following components:

• a professiogram as a description of psychological norms and requirements for the activities and personality of a specialist;

• professional and job requirements (MPT) - a description of the specific content of the specialist’s activities, determining what and how he should do when solving professional tasks in a particular position. ПДТ contains a listing of the minimum professional skills that a specialist must possess to ensure the necessary level of professional activity;

• qualification profile - a combination of the necessary types of professional activity and the degree of their qualification, qualification categories for payment.

The described structure of the specialist’s model is one of the possible, different researchers, depending on their approach, build its various options.

Of the three named components of the specialist’s model, drawing up a professiogram in a special measure requires the participation of a psychologist. Other components - job requirements, qualification ranks are established outside of psychology, within the framework of the relevant industry.
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Model specialist for A.K. Markova

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