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“Scientific and theoretical foundations of the study of the problem of the formation of readiness for professional activity”
Chapter I focuses on the characterization of readiness for professional activity in the subject’s professionalization system, analysis of the structure and content of readiness, as well as existing approaches to the development and formation of readiness of future psychologists in the vocational education system.
In modern psychological science, there is no generally accepted interpretation regarding the concept of “readiness,” which is caused by the ambiguous semantic meaning of the word. K.K. Platonov singled out three meanings of the term “readiness for work” that defined approaches to the study of readiness: as a result of labor education, expressed in the desire to work, the awareness of the need to participate in joint labor activity; as a readiness for a certain work that has become a profession, as a result of vocational training, education and social maturity of a person; as readiness for activities immediately ahead in known or possible conditions, as a state of psychological mobilization.
In the framework of the functional approach, readiness is considered as a temporary situational state of a person’s “mood” for activity (ND Levitov, KK Platonov, A. Ts. Puni, P. A. Rudik, etc.) This understanding of readiness as a special mental state of a person, ensuring the success of professional tasks, allowed scientists to consider its many forms: as an installation (A.G. Asmolov, L.G. Bzhalava, A.S. Prangishvili, D.N. Uznadze, etc. .), as a pre-launch state in sports (V.A. Alatortsev, F. Genov, A.Ts. Puni, etc.), as combat readiness (M.I. Dyachenko, L.A. Kandybovich, V.A. Ponomarenko, AM Stolyarenko and others), as vigilance and preparedness for extreme situations (V.N. Pushkin, L.S. Nersesyan), as temporary readiness and work osposobnost (Levite ND), and others.
In psychological and pedagogical studies in the context of a functional approach, readiness is considered as a psychological attitude, actualization and adaptation of opportunities for successful actions in certain conditions (N.D. Levitov, KK Platonov, etc.), as the ability to mobilize the necessary physical and psychological resources for the implementation of activities (A.B. Leonov, V.G. Myshkina, etc.). A modern understanding of readiness for professional activity within the framework of the functional approach characterizes it as a state of concentration of human capabilities that reach the highest degree, which manifests itself before, during and after the activity (A.V. Samoilik).
The personal approach to understanding readiness as a quality and personality trait is based on the concrete meaning of the concept, i.e. readiness for professional activity as a result of training and education. Such a context, especially relevant in the framework of the problems of professional development, allowed researchers to determine readiness: as a property and quality of a person (A. A. Derkach, M. I. Dyachenko, L. A. Kandybovich, etc.); as a “manifestation of abilities” (B. G. Ananiev), as a spectrum of professional abilities (skills) (V. A. Yakunin); as a manifestation of a professional orientation and professional identity (V.A.Slastenin, LB Schneider and others); as a stable personality characteristic (F.N. Gonobolin, N.V. Kuzmina, A.I. Shcherbakov, etc.). The main feature of readiness as a stable system of personality traits is that it is formed in advance, does not require formation immediately before performing a specific task, manifesting itself as an orientation.
An analysis of the functional and personal approaches showed the inconsistency of such a simplified differentiation of the phenomenon of readiness, which is explained by the classification of the personality’s mental properties as systemic (B.F. Lomov). Therefore, in modern research, scientists no longer consider readiness only as a mental state or as a quality of a person, but present it as an integrative formation of the personality characteristics of a person and his situational mental states. Such a systematic review of readiness, emphasizing the unity and interaction of its personal and functional components, allows us to consider readiness for activity: as a dialectical relationship between mental state and personality quality (TB Gershkovich, K.M. Durai-Novakova, R.D.Sanzhaeva and other); as a stable state of personality (E.P. Korablina, L.V. Maltseva, S.N. Fokeyeva and others); as a hierarchical system of professionally important qualities and personality traits necessary and psychologically sufficient for effective activity (L.N. Zakharova, B.A. Sosnovsky), as an integrative professionally important quality (G.I. Vakhromova, V.V. Korobkova).
The conceptual basis of our understanding of readiness for professional activity is the results of M.I. Dyachenko and L.A. Kandy-bovic, K.M. Durai-Novakova, L.N. Zakharova, N.V. Nizhny Novgorod and V.D. Shad Rikova, R.D. Sanzhaeva et al., Who discovered the dialectical unity of readiness as a mental state and personality traits, and which allow characterizing readiness as a complex of diverse, but interconnected personal and functional characteristics of the subject, necessary for the effective implementation of professional activities.
The definition of the conceptual basis of readiness made it possible to correlate this phenomenon with the concept of competence widely used in modern psychological and pedagogical science and practice. Based on the analysis of modern approaches to competence as a complex multifaceted content formed by the totality of knowledge, skills, abilities and personality traits needed for successful professional activities (V.I. Baidenko, V.A. Bolotov, E.F. Seer, I.A. Zimnyaya, A.V. Mudrik, AM Novikov, V.V. Serikov, V.D. Shadrikov, S.E. Shishov, A.V. Khutorsky, etc.), the work emphasizes that readiness stands as a generic term in relation to competence, which is due to social and professional human experience (A.A. Derkach).
Based on the integral context of professionalization within the framework of psychological theories of specialist development (V.A. Bodrov, E.F. Zeer, T.V. Kudryavtsev, A.K. Markova, L.M. Mitina, Yu.M. Povarenkov, E. S. Romanova, A.R. Fonarev and others) the dialectical relationship of readiness for activity and professional competence is revealed. Each stage of professionalization corresponds to a certain characteristic of the degree of a person’s possession of professional activity, the peak of which is professionalism as the highest level of professional development of the subject. Readiness for professional activity occupies the first stage in the structure of professionalism, which is necessary for the subsequent manifestation of professional competence and achievement of mastery, i.e. is the foundation for the formation of professionalism. Readiness for the profession is the initial component of professionalism, a prerequisite for the success of the upcoming independent activity and a condition for achieving professional competence and skill. Thus, the readiness for professional activity and professional competence are correlated in work as characteristics of related levels of professional development, when competence is considered as readiness manifested in independent professional activity.
Based on the results of a study of the main stages in the formation of various types of readiness for activity (Yu.M. Zabrodin, T.L. Bukharin, I.A. Kalinina, T.V. Nester, etc.) and basic approaches to solving problems of career guidance and vocational education ( V.I. Zhuravlev, E.F. Zeer, E.A. Klimov, S.N. Chistyakova and others) concluded that readiness for professional activity is a multi-level education that occurs during the formation of a complex of its successive neoplasms. According to the age-specific logic and content of professional self-determination, by the end of their studies in primary school, students should have a readiness to choose a profession, which is the necessary basis for the formation of readiness for teaching a profession within the senior specialized school, which, in turn, is the most important condition for the formation of the course of university training readiness to perform professional activities.
The “curves” of development of each of the neoplasms are gradually transformed into a “plateau”, providing the basis for the formation of the next neoplasm of readiness.
The analysis made it possible to determine the readiness for professional activity as a cumulative psychological neoplasm of the initial stages of professionalization (pre-university and university), consisting in the orientation and ability of the subject to perform selected professional activities in accordance with regulatory requirements that occurs at the end of vocational training. This allows us to characterize the readiness, firstly, as a category of activity theory, indicating the functional and personal characteristics of the subject, necessary for the successful implementation of professional activities; secondly, as a category of professional development, indicating the achievement by an entity of an initial level of professional development with an appropriate degree of mastery of the activities that make up the psychological basis for the manifestation of competence and the formation of professionalism; thirdly, as a category of professional education, expressing the purpose and cumulative result of the initial stages of professionalization and indicating the quality of professional training.
The multi-level nature of readiness testifies to its complex structure. Based on the theoretical and experimental ideas accumulated in modern psychological science about the structure of readiness, the work describes the readiness as a multi-level, specific and component system and its structure is developed (Table 1).
Professional preparedness structure
In readiness for professional activity, three main types should be distinguished: physical, psychological and special. Physical readiness is not considered in this study, since in psychological and pedagogical activity there are no special, with the exception of generally accepted, requirements for the physical condition of the subject. Psychological readiness reflects the subjective level of readiness for the profession, which is composed of the socio-psychological and individual-personality characteristics of the specialist required in a particular activity. Accordingly, in psychological readiness for professional activity, it is necessary to distinguish subtypes: motivational readiness, personal readiness, cognitive readiness. Special readiness reflects the object level of readiness, which is the subject-activity characteristics of a specialist, and is divided into two subspecies: theoretical and practical readiness. According to the proposed holistic structure of readiness for activity, the following should be highlighted: - an orientation component, the content of which is a way of activity and a personal professional plan, actualizing the subject’s self-regulation; - the motivational component, the content of which is made up of professionally significant needs, motives and values of the activity, which are formed against the background of a steady interest and a positive attitude towards the profession; - a personal component, the contents of which are professionally significant personality traits of a specialist from among the characterological, emotional-volitional, moral, communicative and other qualities that determine the professional suitability of a person; - an operational component, the content of which is the acquired knowledge, skills of professional activity.
The development of the selected components of readiness takes place in accordance with the mechanism for resolving contradictions between the operational-technical and emotional-motivational aspects of leading activities laid down by DB Elkonin in the age periodization of mental development. The periods in which the predominant development of the motivational-demanding sphere takes place naturally follow the periods in which the operational and technical capabilities are formed, and vice versa. According to this mechanism, in adolescence and early youth (the option stage, according to EA Klimov), during the expansion of ideas about a specific type of professional activity and the conditions for its implementation, an orientation component of readiness is formed; knowledge about the profession contributes to the emergence of professional interests, motives and values, laying the foundation for the motivational component of future readiness for professional activities. In the next age period - youth, in the framework of vocational training, the development of the operational and technical capabilities of the subject takes place in the form of assimilation of ways to carry out activities, i.e. predominantly the operational component of readiness is formed.
Thus, an analysis of the content of the identified components of readiness for professional activity in their relationship with its successive neoplasms indicates the mechanism of heterochronous development of the readiness structure, which consists in the heterogeneous and uneven formation of its components, and thereby determining two stages of readiness formation - pre-university and university.
Since the formation of readiness for professional activity is the psychological essence of professional training, the modern theory and practice of professional education of psychologists are analyzed in detail in the dissertation. In the late 80s - early 90s studies appeared on various aspects of the training of practical psychologists (N.A. Aminov, A.G. Asmolov, S.A. Borovikova, S.M. Godnik, A.A. Derkach, A.I. Dontsov, I.V. Dubrovina, V.P. Zakharov and N.Yu. Khryashcheva, I.A. Zimnyaya, E.A. Klimov, N.V. Kuzmina, A.K. Markova, V.S. Mukhina, E.S. Romanova and others). By the end of the twentieth century, accumulated ideas and the experience of training practical psychologists began to take shape conceptually (Yu.V. Vardanyan, F.Z. Kabirov, V.Ya. Liaudis, A.A. Margolis, V.V. Rubtsov, L.V. Temnova , D.I. Feldstein, L.B.Schneider and others). Conceptual models for the training of psychologists are accompanied by a large number of theoretical approaches and techniques for the formation of various aspects of the readiness of future psychologists, including:
? features and mechanisms of development of the personality of the future psychologist and its individual sides (N. B. Burtovaya, G. P. Ivanov, T. A. Kazantseva, N. M. Pinegin, N. Yu. Samykina, A. V. Sery, S. S. Chebotarev, O.E. Shmatko, etc.);
? the dynamics and characteristics of the formation of professional consciousness (D.E. Belova, E.G. Efremov, N.B. Kaznacheeva, D.V. Oborina, V.M. Prosekova, E.A. Khodyreva, A.O. Sharapov, S .G. Schwarzkop and others), professional orientation (A.A. Gopkalo, L.A. Emelyanova, A.R. Musalaeva and others) and other aspects of professional development in the process of university training of psychologists (G.M. Belokrylova, I.V. Zavgorodnaya, T.V. Zamorskaya, M.V. Novikova, A.Yu. Popova, E.V. Prokopiev, I. B. Tereshkina, T. P. Trescheva, N. B. Shevkiev, A. V. Shilakin, etc.);
? the formation and development of professionally important qualities of a psychologist (I.V. Aksenova, I.K. Gavrilova, N.I. Nikolskaya, A.P. Rozhkova, S.V. Tarasov);
? practice-oriented technologies for the training of psychologists (S.A. Berlin, D.K. Voityuk, I.A. Savenkova, etc.).
Despite the significance of the studies performed over a short period of time, there are many unresolved issues in the professional education of psychologists. The analysis made it possible to classify a wide range of problems of modern theory and practice of professional education of psychologists into three groups: what to teach, how to teach, whom to teach. Specialists associate the main direction of solving the problem of matching the quality of psychological and pedagogical education to modern requirements of professional activity with the implementation of the competency-based approach (V.P. Zinchenko, V.V. Rubtsov, V.D. Shadrikov, etc.). A new form of presenting the results of education and assessing its quality in terms of competencies requires a professiographic analysis of professional psychological and pedagogical activities and justification of innovative ways to implement the competency paradigm.
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