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SCIENCE AND OTHER WAYS OF KNOWLEDGE

From what was said, it would seem that science is some way of knowing the world isolated from others, while ensuring the greatest reliability and effectiveness of knowledge.

This is only to a certain extent; in many ways, science is associated with other forms of cognition; as for reliability, in a number of cases, science - in the established tradition of approaching it - is forced to recognize their priority.

Let's consider it in more detail.

In addition to the scientific way of mastering reality, it is customary to single out ordinary knowledge, artistic knowledge and religious knowledge.

Ordinary knowledge is the knowledge that we practice in everyday life practice. The American PSYCHOLOGIST D. Kelly generally considered it possible to liken any person to a scientist: in order to live, we must rely on certain patterns of life that we have identified; when interacting with something new, we rely - although we do not always formulate them - on certain hypotheses (for example, when meeting a new person we can unconsciously assume that he is kind or, on the contrary, wants to harm us); we verify these hypotheses by practice, if we confirm them, change them and act accordingly. Indeed, there are similarities; moreover, it is sometimes believed that science was born out of everyday experience and is a kind of “ordered common sense”.

However, there are significant differences. In everyday experience, we rely mainly on empirical generalizations, i.e., on generalizations based on directly observable or experienced properties of objects and phenomena, while science is focused on theoretical generalizations that rely on hidden essential properties that go beyond direct observation and require introduction some additional principles (those same generalizing hypotheses that we talked about). Somewhat rougher the situation, we can give an example: a whale and a shark are closer to us than a whale and a porcupine, although in zoological taxonomy based not on external features (body shape, presence of fins) or community of habitat, but on the theory of the origin of species, this not this way.

The following difference: everyday experience is mostly individual, while science strives for the universality of knowledge.

Further, worldly experience is focused primarily on the practical effect; science is largely (especially the so-called "pure" science) focused on knowledge as such, on knowledge as an independent value.

Finally, in life, we, as a rule, do not develop and do not specifically discuss methods of cognition; in science this, as already mentioned, is fundamental.

The foregoing does not mean a hard contrast; we have identified only general trends, although examples can be found in which this difference is very arbitrary.

Science differs from art (the artistic method) in that, as a rule, it strives for the most depersonalized knowledge (although we will make a reservation at once that this is not always the case in psychology), whereas for art the main thing is orientation to the creator’s unique personality, his subjective vision of the world - this is what most often constitutes the main interest of an artistic creation.

In addition, it is customary to emphasize rationalism, the intellectualism of science, as opposed to the figurative and emotional nature of artistic creation.

At the same time, these undoubted differences in many cases are rather arbitrary.
Many scientists (for example, A. Einstein) emphasized the role of figurative and aesthetic experiences in the process of making scientific discoveries and constructing theories. As regards the human sciences, art often gave a direct impetus to scientific thinking (it is not by chance, for example, existentialism was formed in many ways like fiction), just as science opened up new facets for the possibilities of artistic development of the world (for example, psychoanalysis, which will be discussed below, influenced such art classics as the writer G. Hesse, the artist S. Dali, film director F. Fellini).

Science is distinguished from religion primarily by its readiness (not always, however, realized) for self-refutation - up to the basic principles, while religious knowledge - within the framework of a particular denomination - is usually aimed at the confirmation and confirmation of the initial dogmas, a symbol of faith. At the same time, in practice, this contrast is not always obvious: scientific notions are always based on some postulates — positions accepted without evidence and most often unprovable, and often scientists explicitly or implicitly defend them, defending their theories from criticism as if truth of these provisions was undeniable.

Another contrast is important: in religious knowledge, the world is seen as a manifestation of divine intentions and forces, while in science it is considered, even if the scientist is religious, _ as a relatively independent reality that can be discussed as such (the most obvious manifestation of this is, of course, in materialistic science).

We note, however, that in relation to the human sciences, in particular, psychology, religious searches are of particular importance and often turn out to be deeper and finer than the traditional scientific approach (suffice it to recall such religious thinkers as V. S. Soloviev, N. A Berdyaev, S. L. Frank, N. O. Lossky, etc.) We also point out that the problems of faith and religious consciousness are extremely important for a number of the largest psychologists in the world, not only in terms of their personal existence, but also in the construction of psychological theories and psychotherapeutic systems (W. James, K. T. Jung , C. Rogers, W. Frankl, and others — we will talk about them in the corresponding chapter).

Thus, science acts as one of the types of cognition with its own specifics. In the future, we will talk about psychology within the framework of ideas about the scientific method of cognition, although often we will have to make numerous reservations:

the boundaries between psychology and art, psychology and religion are sometimes so arbitrary that when discussing some psychological concepts, a “departure” from scientific rigor is inevitable.
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