about the project
Medicine news
To the authors
Licensed books on medicine
<< Ahead Next >>

The science. Signs of science

Science is the sphere of human activity, the main function of which is to develop knowledge about the world, systematize it, build an image of the world (a scientific picture of the world) and methods of interaction with it (a scientifically based practice) based on them. Science is the most important form of human knowledge. It has an increasingly visible and significant impact on the life of not only society, but also the individual. Science is today the main force in the economic and social development of the world. That is why a philosophical vision of the world organically includes certain ideas about what science is, how it works, develops, what it can give, and what is unavailable to it.

The concept of "science" is quite ambiguous. Science, having numerous definitions, appears in three main forms.

• form (sphere) of human activity;

• a special way of knowing the world;

• a system or body of disciplinary knowledge;

• social institution (system of institutions and organizations).

By science they understand a special sphere of human activity, the main function of which is to develop knowledge about the world, systematize them, on the basis of which it is possible to build an image of the world (the so-called scientific picture of the world) and to build ways of interacting with the world (science-based practice). In this sense, we use the concept of "science", saying, for example, that someone "is engaged in scientific activities", "passionate about science", etc.

Secondly, science means a special way of knowing the world, which is different, for example, from artistic or everyday knowledge, that is, from art and life experience (which is discussed below). In this sense, they talk about the scientific approach, the scientific nature of the data, that something is scientifically established, etc.

Thirdly, science means the knowledge system itself, obtained as a result of research activities. In this sense, we are talking about the so-called Science with a capital letter (for example, "science claims that ..."), physical science (that is, the knowledge system developed by physics), biological science, etc. "Body" of science in this meaning are the laws - open stable relationships between phenomena - the formulation of which allows one to describe, explain and predict the phenomena of objective reality.

Science is often defined as a system of knowledge; and Kant determined. But such a definition is narrow, for it is limited only by an epistemological characteristic; it does not reflect the social function of science and its creatively-active vector. In addition, science includes not only knowledge, but also institutions, so science is increasingly defined as a type of spiritual production. However, there is no general definition of science.

Finally, fourth, science sometimes refers to a system of institutions and organizations (Academies, institutes, laboratories, professional communities, etc.), within which research activities are organized, conferences are convened, etc. In this sense, we use the term “Science”, for example, saying that someone is “engaged in science” or “is a worker of science” - by analogy with the fact that someone may be engaged in production or trade.

There are very large discrepancies among scientific scientists about the emergence and criteria of scientific knowledge. We point to two extreme points of view. According to the first of them, science in the true sense of the word was born in Europe only in the 15-17 centuries, in a period called “the great scientific revolution”. Its occurrence is associated with the activities of such scientists as Galileo, Kepler, Descartes, Newton. It is precisely at this time that the birth of the scientific method proper, for which the specific relationship between theory and experiment is characteristic. At the same time, the role of the mathematics of the natural sciences was realized.

Another point of view, just the opposite of the one just outlined, does not impose any rigid restrictions on the concept of science. According to her supporters, any body of knowledge related to the real world can be considered science in the broad sense of the word. From this point of view, the birth of mathematical science, for example, should be attributed to the time when man began to perform the most basic operations with numbers: astronomy appeared with the first observations of the movement of celestial bodies; zoology and botany - with the advent of the first information about the flora and fauna, etc.

It is clear that the problem of the emergence of science rests on the problem of distinguishing the generic characteristics of scientific knowledge, along which one can draw a demarcation line between scientific and unscientific knowledge.

Characteristic features of science successfully identified I.D. Rozhansky and PP Gaidenko in their works devoted to the study of ancient civilization.

First, any science is not just a body of knowledge, which is the case in everyday knowledge. It is much more important that science is a special activity, namely, the activity of obtaining new knowledge. The latter implies the existence of a certain category of people who are engaged in obtaining new knowledge. A necessary condition for scientific activity is the possibility of recording the information received, which implies the existence of a developed writing system. A society devoid of writing cannot have a science.

It follows that traditional or archaic civilizations, which had a mechanism for storing and transmitting accumulated information, but where there was no activity in obtaining new knowledge, did not have a science. Without detracting from the achievements of archaic civilizations: Ancient Egyptian, Sumerian-Babylonian, Harappa, Old Indian, Ancient Chinese, and others - it can be said like this: they have developed a protoscience that has not turned into a science.

The second feature of science in the true sense of the word is its intrinsic value. The goal of science should be knowledge for the sake of knowledge itself, in other words, the comprehension of truth. Scientific activities to obtain new knowledge can not be directed only at solving practical problems; in the latter case, it falls into the sphere of applied disciplines.

For the Greeks, on the contrary, those who approached mathematics purely theoretically, it was important, first of all, a rigorous solution, obtained by logical reasoning. This led to the development of mathematical deduction, which turned out to be inaccessible to all oriental mathematics. Thus, the distinctive feature of ancient science since its inception was theoretical, that is, the desire for knowledge for the sake of knowledge itself, and not for practical applications.

The third sign of this science should be considered its rational character. The transition “from myth to logos,” that is, to a rational explanation of any phenomena, was a huge step in development, the origins of early Greek science should also be sought in mythology, in particular, in cosmogonic myths.

Fourth, the next sign of this science is its systematic nature. The totality of separate knowledge not connected by internal unity, even if they belong to the same reality, does not yet form a science.

Psevdonau? Ka (from the ancient Greek ?????? - "false" + science; less often: pseudo-ka, quasi-ka, alternative science, exact science) - an activity that imitates scientific activity, but in essence that is not. Characteristic features of a pseudoscientific theory are ignoring or distorting facts, unfalsifiable (incompatibility with Popper's criterion), refusal to reconcile theoretical calculations with the results of observations in favor of appeals to “common sense” or “authoritative opinion”, the use of data on the basis of the theory not confirmed by independent experiments, impossibility independent verification or repetition of research results; use of political and religious attitudes, dogmas in scientific work.

Developers of theories unrecognized by the scientific community often act as "fighters against the ossified official science." At the same time, they believe that representatives of the "official science", for example, members of the commission to combat pseudoscience, advocate group interests (collective responsibility), are politically biased, do not want to admit their mistakes and, as a result, advocate "outdated" ideas to the detriment of the new the truth carried by their theory. Some non-scientific concepts are called parascience.

The main functions of science:

<< Ahead Next >>
= Go to tutorial content =

The science. Signs of science

  1. Valeology - the science of health. Basic concepts of science.
    Valeology - the science of health. Basic concepts
  2. "Theme 1. Valeology - the science of health. The basic concepts of science."
    "Theme 1. Valeology - the science of health. Basic concepts of science.
  3. Valeology as a science, its goals and content
    Valeology (valeo, latin. - hello, be healthy, logos, Greek. - learning, science) - the science of healthy health. For the first time this term was introduced by I. Brekhman in 1981-82. Somewhat later, other authors (Yu.P. Lisitsin, V.P. Petlenko and others, 1987) proposed another term for the name of this science - SANOLOGY (from Latin sanus - healthy). Currently this term is used when
    From what has been said, an impression could be created that science is a certain method of knowledge of the world that is isolated from others, while ensuring the greatest reliability and effectiveness of knowledge. This is so only to a certain extent; in many respects, science is associated with other forms of knowledge; as for reliability, in some cases, science - in the established tradition of approach to it - is forced
  5. Science and other ways of knowing
    From what has been said, one could get the impression that science is some way of understanding the world that is isolated from others, while ensuring the greatest authenticity and effectiveness of knowledge. This is so only to a certain extent; in many respects, science is associated with other forms of knowledge; as for reliability, in some cases, science - in the established tradition of approach to it - is forced
  6. Radiob_ologiya yak science, її ob'kti vivchennya
    Scho vivchaє science radіobіologіya? Radiobіologіya - science, yak vivchaє biologichnu dіyu іонізуючихи віпромінювань on living organisms. Родї pioneer in the respect of E.S. London. Vіn vivchav dіyu gamma vibromivnya radіyu on ferments, toxins and rіznі tissues and living organisms i dіvіv visokyuyuschіst to opromіnennya blood-building system of stategaz. London stalk on the monograph s
  7. Criteria of psychology as a science
    • Science is a sphere of human activity, the main function of which is to develop knowledge about the world, to systematize it, to build an image of the world based on them (scientific picture of the world) and ways of interacting with it (scientifically based practice). • The object of science is that side of reality, on the study of which this science is directed. • The subject of science is what sides are the objects being studied in science
  8. Psychology as a science
    If you try to identify the main trends and trends in the history of human society, then one of the most significant areas should be noted the desire of people to acquire and accumulate knowledge. The tendency to the acquisition and accumulation of knowledge is characteristic of both the individual and humanity as a whole. In the process of evolution of human society
  9. Valeology - HEALTH SCIENCE
    Objective: to acquaint students with the problems of the health status of Russians and show the role of valeology as a health science in solving the problems of preserving, developing and shaping individual health. Objectives: • to identify the causes of depopulation processes in Russia; • describe the goals, objectives, methods of valeology as a scientific direction; • show the role of other human sciences in preserving his
    The true triumph of science, the general progress of all branches of natural science, including, of course, medicine, was observed by mankind in the second half of the 19th century. By that time, the achievements of medical science and practice had surpassed, perhaps, everything that had been accumulated before over several centuries. I achieved great success
  11. Lecture 1. Valeology - the science of health
    Depopulation processes in Russia. The health status of children and adults. Birth rates, life expectancy, age-specific mortality, natural population growth. The structure of causes of death. Life expectancy for men and women. The incidence rate in the country of the most important non-epidemic, infectious and parasitic diseases. Mental
  12. Features of psychological science
    Psychology is a special type of science. The development of psychology as a science was preceded by the development of two large areas of knowledge: the natural sciences and philosophy; psychology has arisen at the intersection of these areas, so it is still not defined, consider psychology as a natural science or humanitarian. It follows from the above that none of these answers seems to be correct. In system
  13. The second way is science
    Strong inventors find strong solutions to individual challenges. Superstrong, super strong go to the universal principles of the solution. Science consists of a system of theories, and those of a system of universal principles. Pikkar, Piri, Zander, Amundsen are superstrong inventors. Their inventions are not the results of accidental discovery or sudden illumination, but the fruits of systematic use
Medical portal "MedguideBook" © 2014-2016