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The area of basic knowledge of the psychologist
A modern specialist, as far as his studies are concerned, approaches at least 5-7 directions. From my learning experience I can list the following:
? The theory of object relations (direction of modern psychoanalysis)
? Gestalt therapy
? Body-oriented therapy
? Behaviorism - the psychology of behavior
? Transactional analysis, etc.
In brief, we will focus on each of these areas, as well as to whom they are designed and how approximately this happens. Let's start with the classic trend - psychoanalysis.
Founder Sigmund Freud believed that psychoanalysis is a method aimed at treating neurotic disorders by studying the characteristics of the structure of the unconscious. In other words, psychoanalysis is a “word cure,” which helps to understand mental disorders through awareness of one’s own unconscious impulses.
For whom: Psychoanalysis can be recommended to those who are set to deep immersion in themselves. Who does not bother the duration of the process - from 3 to 5-7 years when visiting a psychoanalyst at least 2 times a week.
How it happens: At the psychoanalytic session, the patient usually lies on the couch, the psychoanalyst is positioned so that the patient does not see him. Such an arrangement is necessary to create the best atmosphere for the therapeutic process. The main method of psychoanalysis is free association, which comes to the patient's head at the moment.
Based on the theory of C. Jung, who reworked the ideas of Freud. The idea of Jungian analysis is that in the human psyche an important role is played not only by the individual, but also by the collective unconscious, the content of which is represented by the archetypes inherited from the ancestors.
For whom: Jungian therapy is effective in solving many problems: family, interpersonal. It helps those who are experiencing a crisis situation, grief. The imagery and metaphoricity of this method allows you to work even with very young children: using images and symbols, they easily express the most powerful and painful experiences. Jungian therapists also work with those who suffer from depression, anxiety, neurosis, psychosis.
How it happens: Jungian psychotherapy most often takes place in the form of a conversation, face to face, the duration of each meeting is 45-50 minutes. The therapist offers the client to say everything that comes into his head - in therapy there are no taboo topics, and the client can talk about life episodes, feelings, fantasies, in which he never confessed to anyone. The therapist encourages the client to any creative activity: drawing, keeping a diary, writing poetry. Everything that helps a person to express himself and understand what is happening to him is used. Meetings are held one to three times a week. Therapy can be short-term - focused on a specific problem (10-20 meetings), and long-term - up to several years.
The founders of family psychotherapy are Murray Bowen, Jay Hayley, Virginia Satir, Karl Whitaker, Salvador Minuhin and others. The person in this approach is not the object of influence and the client. The client is the whole family, the whole family system, it is she who is the object of psychotherapeutic influence. A family system is a group of people connected by a common place of residence, a common household, and, above all, a relationship. What happens in the family often does not depend on the intentions and desires of the people in this family system, because life in the family is governed by the properties of the system as such. Family psychotherapy in no way aims to change the people who make up the family. All people, whatever they may be, can live more happily in their family. The obstacle to this is not that the people around are bad, but that the family system itself does not function correctly. This is the functioning that can be changed with the help of systemic family psychotherapy.
For whom: Family therapy for those who are not satisfied with relationships within the family. Family therapy works with your family, therefore, both adults and children are clients.
How it happens: The whole family comes to see a psychologist. During the conversation, a family psychologist identifies problems with the family system. With the help of special techniques during the reception, as well as homework begins the correction of the family system.
The narrative approach to psychotherapy appeared in the 80s of the 20th century, the Australian Michael White and the New Zealander David Epson are considered to be the founders. (“Narrative” from English. “Narrative” - history, narration) therapy is a direction of counseling, based on the idea that people's lives and relationships are formed in the process of social interaction. This approach is based on the idea that we comprehend and build life on the basis of stories that tell each other and ourselves. Personal narratives fit into the context of the broad histories of our culture. People coming to therapy are often at the mercy of social stereotypes that create problems and close opportunities for solving them.
For whom: For people who want to understand and change their stereotypes of behavior.
How it happens: you tell the psychologist about the problem you wanted to deal with. During the conversation you are given the opportunity to look at the problem from all sides and rethink your views.
From him. "Gestalt" - image, form, structure - a form of psychotherapy, developed by F. Perls (1893 - 1970). By "gestalt" he understood "the process of unfolding a human need." Gestalt therapy is a direction of psychotherapy that aims to expand the person’s awareness and through this, a better understanding and acceptance of the person’s self, the achievement of greater intrapersonal integrity, greater fullness and meaningfulness of life, improved contact with the outside world, including other people. With the help of gestalt therapy, one can learn to consciously choose one’s behavior using various aspects of one’s personality, make one’s life more fulfilled, get rid of neurotic and other painful symptoms. The person becomes resistant to the manipulation of other people and is able to do without the manipulation of others.
For whom: Gestalt therapy is especially effective when difficulties are caused by interaction with other people. Emotional problems (fears, anxiety, apathy, depressed mood, aggressiveness, anxiety in meaningful situations) are also the subject of work of gestalt therapists. The method is suitable for those who like it when it is possible to exchange sincere emotional reactions with the therapist and receive feedback from him. It is difficult for a therapist to be useful in the case when the inner world is of no value to the person, he is not inclined to reflection and self-knowledge. This method is effective in working with children and adolescents, with adults, couples.
How it happens: Work can be individual or group. At the first meeting, the therapist and the client (or group members) discuss the goals of the work, possible and desired results and ways to achieve them, specify the duration of the meetings and their number.
One of the areas of humanistic psychology, developed by J. Moreno (1890-1974) and based on catharsis, which is achieved with the help of dramatic performances focused on the treatment of painful mental manifestations through the restructuring of relationships and the system of experiences of a sick person. This technique allows you to "play" various situations and thus simulate and understand them. Psychodrama is the first group psychotherapy method in the world (in fact, the term “group psychotherapy” itself was introduced into Moreno psychology). Moreno proceeded from the fact that, since any person is a social being, a group can solve its problems more effectively than one person.
For whom: For people who are interested in re-creating their own dramatic situation in order to solve it, who are not disturbed by self-disclosure in the presence of a group.
How it happens: During the group discussion, participants suggest topics that they would like to understand. The group selects 1-2 from the stated. Then, with the help of the group members, a staged action, declared by the participant, takes place, during which he dives again into the dramatic situation of his past, during which he receives support from the group and the psychologist.
Client-centered therapy, originally developed in the 40s by Karl Rogers (1902-1987), is a constantly evolving approach to human growth and change. Its central hypothesis is that the growth potential of any individual tends to be revealed in a relationship in which the one who helps, experiences and expresses authenticity, reality, care, and a deep and accurate non-judgmental understanding. The client-centered approach is applicable in any sphere of human effort where the goal is the psychological growth of the individual.
For whom: The client-centered approach helps those who are tired of loneliness and do not find understanding among other people who lack sympathy, participation and warmth. Therefore, it can be applied in almost all areas where we need mutual understanding. Unconditional acceptance of the other, empathy with him, openness to his feelings contribute to the successful course of negotiations, and the treatment of neuroses, and the resolution of social conflicts.
How it happens: The client-centered approach is called “non-directive”: it does not direct anyone, does not direct anything, or force anything. The concepts of norm and pathology, disease and cure, diagnosis and symptom are not used here. The therapist will appreciate everything the client says.
Therapy takes place in the form of a dialogue. The client himself determines which issues are relevant for him now, and the therapist helps him in researching and expressing his feelings, images, fantasies. Listening and answering, he is completely focused on the client: the very presence of an attentive, understanding interlocutor helps a person to cope with fear and despair, instills confidence in his abilities. As a result of therapy, its participant comes to the feeling of freedom and fullness of life with all its joys and difficulties.
suggests that human problems arise from distortions of reality based on misconceptions, which, in turn, have arisen as a result of improper learning in the process of personal development.
Therapy is to search for distortions in thinking and to teach an alternative, more realistic way of perceiving your life. The cognitive-behavioral approach works when it is necessary to find new forms of behavior, to build the future, to consolidate the result. The cognitive-behavioral approach to emotional disorders changes a person’s view of himself and his problems. Having rejected the idea of himself as a helpless victim of circumstances, a person gets the opportunity to see a being in himself, both inclined to give rise to erroneous ideas, and able to unlearn from them or correct them, having determined the mistakes of his own thinking.
For whom: Cognitive therapy is effective when working with many personal problems: anxiety, self-doubt, difficulties in establishing relationships, eating disorders ... It helps those who have experienced violence, stress. The method of cognitive therapy can be used both in individual work and in work with families.
How it happens: The client and the psychotherapist investigate the circumstances in which the problem manifests itself: how “automatic thoughts” arise and how they affect his ideas, experiences and behavior. He learns to soften hard beliefs, to see different facets of a problem situation. Homework - the exercises offered by the psychotherapist allow the client to consolidate new skills. So gradually he learns to live in accordance with new, more flexible, views without the support of the therapist.
The symbolic drama was created by the outstanding German psychotherapist Hanscarl Leuer (1919-1996). (Catatimo-imaginative psychotherapy, Catactivic experience of images or the method of "dreaming in reality") is one of the areas of psychotherapy, based on the principles of deep psychology, which uses a special method of working with the imagination to make the unconscious desires of a person, his imagination, conflicts and defense mechanisms, as well as attitudes and resistance. Symboldrama contributes to their processing both at the symbolic level and during the psychotherapeutic conversation. As a metaphor, symbolism can be described as “psychoanalysis using images”.
For whom: Symboldrama is effective in the treatment of neurosis and psychosomatic diseases, as well as in psychotherapy disorders associated with neurotic personality development.
How it happens: The patient sits relaxed in a chair with eyes closed, relaxes with the help of special techniques. The psychotherapist sets the topics that the patient sees in his imagination. Work with them is underway.
Body-oriented psychotherapy (TOP)
One of the areas of psychotherapy, which has its own history of development, its own schools. TOP combines a variety of theoretical and methodological approaches to the effects on the psyche through changes made to the body. The main idea of TOP is the inseparability of the body from the consciousness, the conviction that the body is a manifestation of the personality and there is a functional unity between them. Body psychotherapy addresses deep-seated interconnections, which are psycho-body processes, while giving equal attention to both the body and the psychic component. TOP has a large set of techniques (from "cathartic" to "bodily homeopathy"): methods of working with breathing, touch, muscle tone, posture, movement, sensory awareness, images, language, etc., with the help of which are realized, studied and accepted repressed aspects of the experience of the individual with a view to its subsequent integration.
For the first time, the term "art therapy" began to use the English doctor and artist Adrian Hill (Adrian Hill). Classical art therapy involves self-expression through the visual arts: painting, drawing, photography, drawing, modeling. But today, other forms of art used for psychotherapeutic purposes, such as puppet therapy, mascotherapy, and music therapy, are also referred to this method. An integrated method also appeared: art synthesis therapy works through painting, versification, drama and theater, rhetoric and plastics. One of the areas of humanistic psychology, the method of psychotherapy, based on art, primarily visual and creative activities. The creative process is the main therapeutic mechanism, allowing in a special symbolic form to rebuild a conflict traumatic situation, to find a new form of its resolution. Through drawing, a game, a fairy tale, art therapy provides an outlet for internal conflicts and strong emotions, helping to understand one's own feelings and experiences.
NLP (Neuro Linguistic Programming)
Founders: Richard Bundler, USA (1940), John Grinder, USA (1949). "Neuro" - this method uses the structure of the brain, "linguistic" - one of the important elements of this technique is speech, "programming" - the ability to control, predict the result of a particular technique. This is a communication technique aimed at changing the usual patterns of interaction, gaining confidence in life, optimizing creative potential.
For whom: This is especially useful for those people who, by the nature of their activities, communicate a lot, communicate, interact with other people. The scope of NLP is quite wide: business, education, social work, everyday situations, and more. etc. Also NLP techniques are used in psychotherapy.
How it happens: Impact occurs using special techniques NLP.
Fairy tale therapy
This is a form of knowledge and treatment of the soul. Fairy tale therapy is based on the fact that the unconscious develops and manifests itself in certain ways, which are very convenient to study in the form of fairy tales. In this sense, fairy-tale therapy is a form of deep psychotherapy, although in its accessibility and versatility, it is quite applicable for more “everyday” tasks.
For whom: Fairy tale therapy is used for both children and adults.
How it happens: The patient comes up with a plot of a fairy tale or recalls fairy tales that have had a strong impression on him once before. Then, in a conversation with a psychologist, there is a discussion and interpretation of a fairy tale.
Transactional (transactional) analysis
Direction in psychology and psychotherapy, created by E. Byrne. By analogy with classical psychoanalysis, transactional analysis is focused on identifying the “scenarios” of an individual's life plans, which are often imposed by parents. Этот анализ был расширен за счет «структурного анализа», при помощи которого в Я индивида, находящегося в различных коммуникативных ситуациях, выделяются три состояния: Родитель, действующий по типу отношения родителя к ребенку, Взрослый, объективно оценивающий реальность, и Ребенок, действующий по типу отношения ребенка к родителям.
Как это происходит: Транзактный анализ – это групповая и индивидуальная работа, связанная со словом, эмоциями и чувствами. Обычно терапевты рекомендуют сочетать оба способа. С самых первых сеансов клиент заключает с терапевтом устный «контракт на изменение», в котором определяются цели работы и пути их достижения. В ходе терапии контракт может быть изменен. С помощью терапевта клиент познает структуру своей личности, учится распознавать по внешним признакам, в каких состояниях «я» он чаще всего бывает и как это сказывается на его поведении и общении. Терапия помогает клиенту измениться – вновь обрести в себе Естественного Ребенка, укрепить позиции уставшего от борьбы Родителя, научиться разрешать свои проблемы с позиции Взрослого и восстановить уверенность в себе и в своих силах. Работа обычно длится недолго: задача транзактного аналитика – освободить клиента от проблем как можно скорее.
Комплексная и высокоэффективная методика наведения транса, разработана Милтоном Эриксоном (1901 - 1980), американским психиатром и психотерапевтом, человеком, радикально изменившим представления о гипнозе и методах работы с гипнозом. Созданный им метод гипноза кардинально отличается от классического своей недирективностью: терапевт не дает клиенту инструкций и указаний, а помогает ему войти в особое состояние — транс: клиент бодрствует и может активно общаться с терапевтом. Как показал Милтон Эриксон, такая отстраненность отличается от состояния сверхвнушаемости, с которым связывают традиционный гипноз. Внушаемость может усилиться в гипнотическом трансе, но она не является специфическим и постоянным элементом данного явления. Новый гипноз может быть использован как для создания психотерапевтической атмосферы, так и для проявления потенциальных возможностей, существующих в подсознании клиента. Он может использоваться различными способами для обретения важного опыта научения и для усиления способностей человека получать пользу от данного опыта
Для кого: Эриксоновский гипноз помогает при самых разных проблемах – психологических и психосоматических. Метод эффективен при работе с фобиями, зависимостями, семейными и сексуальными проблемами, посттравматическими синдромами, нарушениями пищевого поведения. С помощью эриксоновского гипноза можно работать и со взрослыми, и с детьми.
Как это происходит: Во время сеанса психотерапевт также прибегает к особому метафоричному языку. Он рассказывает истории, анекдоты, сказки, притчи, но делает это особым образом – используя метафоры, в которых «прячутся» послания для бессознательного. Слушая сказку, клиент представляет образы героев, видит сцены развития сюжета, оставаясь внутри собственного внутреннего мира, живущего по своим законам.
Все это – очень приблизительное и поверхностное описание указанных направлений психологии.
Есть психологи, которые работают в одном, выбранном по вкусовым и личностным предпочтениям направлении. Есть профессионалы, которые имеют доступ к ресурсам многих направлений. Но всех их объединяет одно – у каждого вырабатывается свой стиль, метод. Один и тот же инструмент разные профи будут использовать в своей индивидуальной манере. Потому что в этой профессии терапевт работает собой, он (она) – основной инструмент взаимодействия с клиентом, и личность накладывает «неизгладимый отпечаток» на стиль работы психолога.
Настоящий профессионал, изучив несколько наиболее привлекательных для него направлений, формирует свой «ящик с инструментами», которыми он пользуется исходя из реальности клиентского запроса. Каждому психологу также необходимо учитывать свои характерные и человеческие особенности, из которых формируются профессиональные ресурсы и ограничения. Очень хорошим ресурсом в работе психолога может стать его личный опыт. Конечно, при условии его достаточной «проработанности» в личной терапии.
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Область базовых знаний психолога
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