Licensed books on medicine
<< Previous || Next >> |
GENERAL REPORT ON SCIENCE
In general, science is understood as the sphere of human activity, the main function of which is the development of knowledge about the world, its systematization, on the basis of which it is possible to build an image of the world (the so-called scientific picture of the world) and build ways of interacting with the world (scientifically based practice). The "body" of science is constituted by laws — open, stable connections between phenomena — the formulation of which allows us to describe, explain, and predict the phenomena of objective reality.
Of course, the knowledge generated by science cannot be considered absolute. Laws are formulated within the framework of certain theories; theories are attempts at a holistic view of the laws and essential properties of certain areas of reality and arise on the basis of hypotheses, that is, assumptions about these connections and properties. Strictly speaking, general hypotheses, claiming explanations of a universal nature, are almost completely impossible to confirm; even if all the visible human experience confirms the validity of the hypothesis, this does not mean its universal reliability - there is always the possibility of new data appearing that contradict it, and then the hypothesis should be revised. The same with theory; it is a systematic description, explanation and prediction of phenomena in a certain area on the basis of a widely confirmed hypothesis; it exists until a certain amount of conflicting data is accumulated, requiring a revision of the theory up to abandoning it. Actually, the development of science basically represents the development and change of theories;
an honest scientist (or a group of scientists) creating a theory is always aware of its probabilistic, “non-absolute” nature. At the same time, new theories cover an increasing number of phenomena and serve practice more and more reliably; this allows us to talk about the increasing reliability of knowledge, which determines the progress in science.
(At the same time, situations of “returning” to the old and already seemingly rejected theories are quite frequent - they are rethought at a new level and are opened by new, so far hidden sides and possibilities).
One should not think that science is limited to "pure theorizing." The development of scientific knowledge means access to new areas of phenomena and their correlation with initial ideas, i.e., new interactions with the world.
The inability to explain the data within the framework of the existing ideas gives rise to a cognitive contradiction that constitutes the problem (usually it is formulated as a question); then a hypothesis is formulated, that is, a hypothetical answer to this question, justified in the framework of the original theory; To test the hypothesis, the organization of obtaining empirical (i.e., experimental) data is further processed and interpreted. The indicated items (statement of the problem, formulation of a hypothesis, obtaining empirical data, processing, interpretation) represent the main stages of scientific research, within the framework of which research methods are implemented, that is, sound normalized methods of its implementation. Special attention is paid to the improvement of research methods in science, because in order to advance in knowledge, confidence in the reliability of the data obtained, and therefore in the optimality of the method of obtaining them, is necessary.
So, science is an area of human activity aimed at gaining knowledge; the most developed form of knowledge is a theory within which formulated laws are formulated; theories are formulated on the basis of widely supported hypotheses and, accordingly, there are opportunities to describe, explain and predict phenomena; The main mechanism for the development of scientific knowledge is scientific research, carried out on the basis of the application of specially developed methods.
| << Previous || Next >> |
| = Skip to textbook content = |
GENERAL REPORT ON SCIENCE
- General understanding of science
The concept of "science" is quite ambiguous. Firstly, science is understood as a special sphere of human activity, the main function of which is the development of knowledge about the world, its systematization, on the basis of which it is possible to build an image of the world (the so-called scientific picture of the world) and build ways of interacting with the world (scientifically based practice). In this sense, we use the concept of “science,” saying
- General idea of the profession
For starters, it’s useful to figure out what is generally considered a “profession." The famous psychologist E. A. Klimov examines various aspects of the concept of “profession” (Klimov, 1996. - pp. 145-205): 1. Profession as a community of people who deal with similar problems and lead approximately the same lifestyle (it is known that the profession is still leaves its “imprint” on a person’s entire life).
- GENERAL REPRESENTATION OF THE PROFESSIONAL PSYCHOLOGIST
GENERAL REPRESENTATION OF THE PROFESSION
- Understanding Group Psychotherapy
In the proper sense of the word, the emergence of group psychotherapy was attributed to the years 1904-1905, linking this moment with the medical activities of I. V. Vyazemsky (Russia) and J. Pratt (USA). The theory of “animal magnetism” by Franz-Anton Mesmer, an Austrian physician practicing, should be considered the first attempt to give a scientific and theoretical explanation of the healing processes taking place in the group.
- General idea of the profession “psychologist”
The choice of a particular psychological profession presupposes a pronounced humanitarian orientation (orientation to a person with his problems), while many other professions also allow for more pragmatic orientations associated with making money, with the production of some goods, with the creation of some objects. But it is psychologists along with representatives of other humanitarian-oriented
- General idea of personality development in the profession
1. The problem of the “specialist model” and the individual style of psychologist’s activity The very idea of a “specialist model”, especially when applied to such a creative and complex profession as a psychologist, is sometimes in doubt. Typically, the following rationale is given: it is impossible to squeeze into the "model" all the characteristics of professional activity (along with the need to improvise in work), and
- General idea of personality development in the profession
A.K. Markova distinguishes: 1) a model of an existing specialist and 2) a model of specialist training (based on an analysis of the educational activities of future specialists and their orientation on the model of a ready-made specialist). When describing the model of a ready-made specialist, the following stand out: a model of a specialist’s activity, as well as a model of a specialist’s personality. One of the most acute problems in compiling a “model
- General idea of applied psychology and psychological practice
Psychological problems permeate our whole life, that is, a psychologist can find application in almost all spheres of human life and not only humans (as you know, psychologists study the lives of animals, birds, fish, microorganisms, holistic ecological systems, etc.). But here immediately questions arise: who determines what problems a psychologist should deal with, and which
- General idea of psychocorrection as a direction of practical psychology
Psychological correction is defined as a directed psychological effect on certain psychological structures in order to ensure the full development and functioning of the person (Isurina G.L., 1990). Love dictate differences in the means and methods of psychocorrection. In the psychoanalytic approach, psychocorrectional work is aimed at alleviating the symptoms of internal
- GENERAL PRESENTATION ABOUT ANESTHESIOLOGY AND REANIMATOLOGY AS A SECTION OF MEDICINE OF CRITICAL CONDITIONS
GENERAL PRESENTATION ABOUT ANESTHESIOLOGY AND REANIMATOLOGY AS A SECTION OF CRITICAL MEDICINE
- Lecture No. 6 sssn Topic: Immunity, factors forming it. General idea of the immune system and its work.
Lecture No. 7 Topic: Environmental aspects of health and prospects for survival
- NEW MEDICINE IN A NEW SCIENCE
Traditionally, the idea of a new method of studying nature, the beginning of the science of the New Age is associated with the name of F. Bacon (1561-1626), the author of the famous essay "New Organon". In his writings, a program for the development of experimental science was developed. He did not disregard medicine. Let us dwell on some aspects of Bacon’s teachings regarding the prospects for its development. Talking about classification