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General idea of psychocorrection as a direction of practical psychology
Psychological correction is defined as a directed psychological effect on certain psychological structures in order to ensure the full development and functioning of the person (Isurina G.L., 1990).
Love dictate differences in the means and methods of psychocorrection.
In the psychoanalytic approach, psycho-correctional work is aimed at alleviating the symptoms of the internal conflict interaction between the Superself and It through overcoming inadequate psychological defenses.
In the behavioral direction, deviations from the norm, causing the need for psychocorrection, are considered as the result of "harmful" learning. Therefore, the main emphasis is on the change of those forms of behavior that do not correspond to the circumstances of the life of the client; Correctional work is carried out, first of all, as training in the necessary forms of behavior.
In the existentially humanistic direction, psycho-correctional work is understood, first of all, as creating the conditions for positive personality changes (personal growth, self-actualization, expansion of the spaces of being). Moreover, the task of the psychologist is not to bring the individual characteristics of the client in line with the norms of mental development, but to focus on unique opportunities, potentials, personal resources. In domestic psychology, the content of psycho-correctional work reflects the theoretical approaches of the main scientific schools. For example, in the framework of the cultural-historical approach, psychocorrection is understood as the development of higher mental functions through the mastery of sign systems while taking into account the zone of proximal development. The activity paradigm connects psychocorrection with the formation of a system of actions and a clear structuring of activities.
Methods and techniques of psychocorrection can be considered not only from the standpoint of the main theoretical directions of psychology, but also from the point of view of the goals of psychocorrection. So, the authors of the "Workbook of a Practical Psychologist" (M., 1996) in individual psychocorrection identify two areas:
1. Methods of strengthening the regulatory functions of the psyche, the development of emotional self-control and self-government; at the same time, the task of improving the client’s mental self-regulation is solved by means of business conversations, during which specific actions and actions of the client are discussed; the cognitive and emotional components of self-regulation are corrected through persuasion, the development of controlling emotions and the formation of adequate reactions to various external influences from the side of a leader or colleague, a family member or an accidental initiator of a conflict situation;
2. Methods of normative and value correction, the objects of which are normative complexes that condition the refusal to comply with joint principles, goals, tasks, protest against regulation; the feeling of unjustified imprisonment often leads to bad habits, unhealthy addictions. Methods of group psychocorrection, as a rule, are aimed at developing norms of personal behavior and interpersonal interaction, developing the ability to respond flexibly to a situation, quickly rebuild in different conditions and different groups. As such methods, specially developed psychotechnics, exercises, role-playing games, group discussions, etc. are used.
Theoretical and methodological foundations of psychological counseling
Psychological counseling is one of the most important areas of professional activity of a practical psychologist.
The main task of psychological counseling can be defined as follows: to create the conditions under which the client will be able to look at their life difficulties from the outside, to realize unconstructive ways of behavior and building relationships, and to find adequate actions that allow him to get a new emotional and personal experience.
The main goal in this case should be considered as psychological assistance to a person in becoming him as a productive person with a high level of self-awareness, able to carry out his own, independently chosen life strategy, ready to bear responsibility for his fate.
Psychological counseling is separated from psychotherapy rather conditionally, since in the process of consultation psychotherapeutic methods and techniques are often used.
However, it is generally accepted that counseling is still more superficial in nature than psychotherapy itself.
The methodology of various approaches to counseling is determined by their belonging to one of the main directions of modern psychology: psychoanalytic, behaviorist or existential-humanistic.
Accordingly, the psychologist-consultant, guided by the psychoanalytic theory (in one of the many modifications), considers the client’s mental life from three points of view: dynamic (as a result of interaction and conflict of various psychic forces), “economic” (as a combination of its energy characteristics) and topical (from the point of view of the structural organization of the psyche). At the same time, the consultant psychoanalyst sees his main task in helping the patient to realize the nature and causes of internal conflicts, strengthen his “I” and make him more independent from the “Super-I” and “It”.
To do this, he needs to achieve a working alliance with the patient, work out his resistance and transfer with him, overcome the effects of non-constructive defense mechanisms, possibly realize the manifestations of various complexes. The basis of the majority of psychoanalytically oriented counseling techniques is “free association”.
A behavioral advisor works primarily on client behavior. His task is to translate the psychological problem, expressed in obscure, ambiguous words, into objectively observable behavioral acts. Having demonstrated the inadequacy of the client’s stereotypical behavior, a behavioral counselor along with him models the desired behavior and forms the necessary skills. A specific action plan is being developed to achieve the goal, which is systematically and persistently implemented under the supervision of a psychologist.
A humanistically oriented consultant is based on two important tenets:
1. People control themselves, their behavior is determined by the ability to make their choice: choose how to think and how to act;
2. Each person has an inborn need for the realization of his potential - for personal growth - although the environment can block this growth.
Based on these principles, the consultant sees his task in helping the client to make personal changes and support him while making a responsible decision.
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General idea of psychocorrection as a direction of practical psychology
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