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General idea of ​​personality development in the profession

1. The problem of the “specialist model” and the individual style of psychologist’s activity

The very idea of ​​a “specialist model”, especially when applied to such a creative and complex profession as a psychologist, is sometimes in doubt. Usually, the following rationale is given: it is impossible to squeeze into the “model” all the characteristics of professional activity (along with the need to improvise in work), and it is also impossible to single out the generally accepted, standard-model “profile of the personal and professional qualities of a specialist”, under which one could “adjust »Future psychologists. Most likely, such a profile should include qualities such as "kindness", "ability to communicate", "love for people (or children)", "decency", etc. But, as you know, some (if not many) well-known psychologists had non-living and even scandalous in nature (for example, 3. Freud) and were far from the model of “external benevolence and decency,” being only an example of internal decency and scientific honesty. But how to accurately determine precisely the internal merits of a professional and even correlate them with the requirements of a "professional specialist profile"?

Nevertheless, in order to at least roughly imagine what a psychologist should be, an appeal to the “specialist model” is often useful.

Markova Aelita Kapitonovna - Doctor of Psychology, professor, specialist in the field of psychology of professionalism, psychology of a teacher, motivation of educational activities.

The famous psychologist A. K. Markov identifies the following main components of the specialist model:

1) a professiogram, that is, a description of the activity of a psychologist; 2) professional and job requirements (minimum necessary knowledge and skills when performing certain professional tasks); 3) qualification profile (knowledge and skills of the employee in accordance with tariff categories of remuneration). Particularly important for the psychological understanding of the basic requirements for a psychologist is the description of the psychologist’s activity itself, as well as a description of the activity in various psychological specialties {Markova, 1996. - P. 22).

A.K. Markova also distinguishes: 1) a model of an already existing (working, ready-made) specialist and 2) a model of specialist training (based on an analysis of the educational activities of future specialists and their orientation on the model of a ready-made specialist). When describing the model of a ready-made specialist, the following stand out: a model of a specialist’s activity, as well as a model of a specialist’s personality. When describing the model of specialist training, the requirements for different educational and age groups of students who are studying or retraining are considered, and their life and professional experience is also taken into account (ibid., Pp. 20-21).

One of the most acute problems in compiling a “specialist model” is the allocation of a “specialist personality model”. Traditionally, psychologists use tests to identify the most pronounced personal qualities of successfully working specialists on different scales and parameters, and thus, it seems that they get the "personal profile of a specialist." But how to measure the ability for creativity, which in itself crosses out all norms and standardized assessments? How to measure love for people, decency, professional and human conscience? But all this is often more important components of the professional success of a psychologist than his knowledge and mastery of techniques.

In order to somehow get out of the impasse, experts sometimes go “on the contrary”, trying to highlight obvious contraindications for working as a psychologist. Such contraindications for a psychologist can be:

1. Hatred of people, the desire to "take revenge" they do not understand why .., unfortunately. There are such embittered people who themselves need psychological help, and who themselves are better not to be allowed in. It’s all the more frightening when such “hateful people” manage to get diplomas of higher psychological education and engage in psychological practice.

2. Frank mental ill health. It is clear that a mentally ill “psychologist” can simply be “dangerous for his clients, especially when he works with children and adolescents.” Note that the students themselves, answering the question, "with which psychologist, with what negative qualities would you like to deal with?", In most cases, identified characteristics such as "inability to communicate" and "mental illness."

3. Inability to communicate, inability to build relationships with people on a mutually respectful basis. During various "interviews" with applicants entering psychological departments, those who immediately behave brazenly and defiantly, and most importantly, constantly interrupt the interlocutor, striving to emphasize their superiority, immediately catch the eye. With regard to the future work of a psychologist, this is not just tactlessness or bad manners, it is an obstacle to building a truly dialogical interaction with a client (or colleagues), it is the basis for future manipulation of the client’s consciousness, which should be considered as a terrible “professional sin” for a psychologist.

4. In relation to the future student-psychologist, one can distinguish such undesirable qualities as “laziness”, lack of initiative, and also a passive attitude that teachers “must” constantly intrigue and entertain students in their classes. At the same time, students can only evaluate which teacher was able to “captivate” them more, who is “bigger or smaller eye” and with which teacher they are “more interesting”. One can imagine such a student psychologist, if he appeared at the lectures of those teachers who, being recognized authorities in their field of psychology, never “flirt” with students and do not even strive to “please” them ... However, a professional teacher - Moreover, the teacher of psychology should be able to communicate with students, but this should not be confused with simplisticism and populism.

There are quite a few models of professional activity of a practical psychologist (G. S. Abramova, 1994; N. S. Pryazhnikov, 1996; V. Yu. Menovschikov, 1998 and others). In most cases, we are talking about models that describe only one of the areas of work of a psychologist (consultant, diagnostician, therapist). The set of characteristics of a qualified practical psychologist in comparison with an unskilled person regardless of the specific type of professional activity is presented in the following model (E. Allen, 1987; G.S. Abramova, 1994).

Table 5 Model of the activity of a practical psychologist according to Allen - Abramova

The main qualities of a psychologist

Qualified

Unskilled

/. Psychological Aid Objectives

Orientes the client for his purposes, offering him the maximum possible number of behaviors; sees his task in expanding the capabilities of the client.

He pursues his goals, uses the client to realize his own inclinations, to demonstrate his exclusivity or to solve his own problems.

2. Responses and reactions in the situation of professional activity

Provides a variety of verbal and non-verbal responses; avoiding value judgments, gives constructive feedback. *

Demonstrates a typical, template style of communication, gives stereotyped assessments.

3. The worldview (concept) of a practical psychologist

He understands the complexity of the study of human individuality and the impact on it, realizes the impossibility of its multidimensional description within the framework of one concept and therefore seeks to use many concepts in its work.

It does not have a clear concept or one, the content and origin of which does not reflect and is clearly not aware.

The main qualities of a psychologist

Qualified

Unskilled

4. Cultural productivity of a practical psychologist

He is capable of developing many ideas and behavioral patterns both in his own culture and within other cultures, which allows him to join the client’s world, to gain an understanding of the life path different from his own.

Acts only within the framework of his own culture, which he understands only through the content of his self-concept (often inadequate).

5.
Confidentiality

Clearly reflects the content of the received psychological information, knows how to keep professional secrets.

Violates the rules of confidentiality, prone to the distribution of confidential information.

6. Limitations in the activities of a practical psychologist

Realistically assesses his capabilities and limits of competence, is ready to cooperate with representatives of related professions and colleagues.

It works without restrictions, takes on any problem, does not want to work with other professionals, considers all its actions to be correct.

7. Interpersonal influence in the work of a practical psychologist

Recognizes and fixes the mutual influence of him and the client, constantly reflexes his feelings, thoughts, desires; takes into account the results of interpersonal influence.

Does not understand, does not accept and does not take into account interpersonal influence in interaction with the client.

8. Human dignity

Respect for the dignity of the client is an axiom. In particular, it ensures that the psychological dictionary used is adequate for the client.

It can demonstrate disrespectful or even insulting attitude towards a client, gives super-significance to its profession, takes a position “from above”, uses pseudo-scientific jargon, overloading speech with special terminology.

9. Generalized theory

Actively reflects the content of the generalized theory, constantly masters new theories and approaches; sometimes capable of developing his own concept of psychological assistance, open to the perception of alternative points of view.

Attached to one approach, critically evaluates other possible points of view, takes the approach known to him as the only true one; does not assimilate the generalized theory as a personal way of thinking.

When considering the basic requirements (and contraindications) to a professional psychologist, one should also recall the inevitable formation of an individual style of work among experienced specialists that is difficult to adapt to some generally accepted standards and profiles. The general logic of the formation of an individual style of professional activity of a psychologist suggests the following important points:

1. First, the psychologist relies on his existing abilities and skills, gradually adapting them to solve their professional problems.

2. Further, on the basis of existing qualities and skills, new, previously absent qualities often arise.

3. Finally, a complex interconnected system of existing adapted and new professionally important qualities is gradually being formed. V. Merlin called such a quality system a “symptom complex” and noted at the same time: “An individual style of activity should not be understood as a set of individual properties, but as an appropriate system of interrelated actions * with the help of which a certain result is achieved.

Individual actions form an integrated system precisely because of the expedient nature of their relationship ”{Merlin, 1986.-S. 166-167).

We draw attention to the fact that, for the full formation of a specialist psychologist, the orientation toward a goal (or even an idea) also plays an important role, which mobilizes various knowledge and skills, acquiring

Merlin Wolf Solomonovich (1892-1982) - Doctor of Psychology, professor, one of the leading experts in the field of personality psychology. Creator of the Perm School of Psychologists.

both in the course of studying at a university and the gradually accumulated experience of independent practical work. The saddest thing here is the lack of such an idea that does not allow putting in order in the existing knowledge and skills, does not allow to generalize your experience, and leaving it at the level of “garbage”, that is, at the level of an unsystematic, unconnected general idea of ​​a “heap” of individual impressions, knowledge, skills, etc.

We can distinguish the main stages in the formation of an individual style of psychologist's activity:

1. At the first stage, it is important to master professional activities according to already established schemes and procedures, that is, learn to work as “as expected”. This is what guarantees the successful completion of tasks. At this stage, the following sub-steps can be distinguished:

1.1. The general orientation in this activity, when a novice employee "as a whole" already knows (or imagines) how to work, but can not yet perform the work as a whole.

1.2. The development of individual actions and operations, as well as the development of individual procedures, techniques and methods of work.

1.3. Finally, the development of activities in general (according to the normatively approved, “right” model).

2. At the second stage, a more experienced specialist (who has learned to perform certain tasks and even has mastered certain types of professional activity as a whole) can afford some deviation from the normatively approved work patterns. Here you can distinguish approximately the following sub-steps: 2.L The emergence of the general idea of ​​working in a new way,

in their own way (at least an approximate idea of ​​how to successfully complete a professional task differently than is usually done). ''

2.2. Testing and mastering individual actions in a new way.

2.3. The gradual design and development of all activities in a new way, that is, the formation of their own individual style of professional activity.

The most important thing in the formation of an individual work style is not to rush and always have secured “rear areas” in the form of previously mastered activities on a normatively approved model, which guarantees successful work in the event of unsuccessful experimentation in the development of new ways of working.

Observations of students and already working specialists make it possible to single out one interesting regularity. Typically, students and beginning psychologists, seeking to increase their readiness for future professional activities, pay more attention to the development of their knowledge, and, if possible, their skills.

Adults who are already working psychologists, as they develop professionally, are also preoccupied with their development in work, gradually switch from knowledge and skills to the value-semantic aspects of their activities. They are increasingly raising the question of the meaning of their “stay in psychology”, what they can give psychology, and how much it can enrich them as individuals. In this regard, the question arises: is it worth rushing events and raising such value-semantic questions before students and beginning psychologists, or is it better to wait until they themselves are "ripe" for such questions? We believe that some standard approaches are unacceptable here, since all specialists and all psychology students are different, so the timing of “ripening” is also different for everyone. And someone may not have such “maturing” at all, although he can quite efficiently fulfill his professional duties and even consider himself a mature psychologist ... Is it worth it to disappoint such specialist psychologists, especially since they even benefit others.

The only problem is that the more important result of professional work is the development of the personality of the professionals themselves, and this development is connected, first of all, with the development of the value-semantic sphere of the personality. It’s not without reason that A. K. Markov, highlighting the levels of professionalism, calls “the level of superprofessionalism” as the highest such level, where the main stage is “the stage of creative self-designing of oneself as a personality of a professional”. It is at this stage that a person truly reaches his “acme,” that is, the pinnacle of professional development (Markova, 1996. - P. 52).
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