about the project
Medical news
For authors
Licensed books on medicine
<< Previous Next >>


The foundations of Russian scientific psychology were also laid in the late XIX - early XX centuries.

First of all, we note the natural science direction, which has long-standing traditions originating from MV Lomonosov, embodied in the period under review in the works of V. M, Ankylosing spondylitis, the creator of the direction called “reflexology”.

Vladimir Mikhailovich Bekhterev (1857-1927), a neuropathologist, psychologist, psychiatrist, created the first experimental psychological laboratory in Russia ”(1885, Kazan) and the Psychoneurological Institute (1907, St. Petersburg), in which comprehensive studies were carried out person (later the traditions of an integrated approach were developed by a Leningrad psychologist

Boris Gerasimovich Ananyev).

Reflexology, striving to be an objective science, was widely used physiological to explain mental phenomena. principles, studying reflexes that occur with the participation of the brain (as you know, in Russian science this approach is associated with the name of Ivan Mikhailovich Sechenov (1829-1905).

With regard to Russian psychology, which basically followed the traditions of W. Wundt at that time, reflexology played a significant role in moving it beyond the principles of self-observation, “pure consciousness”; at the same time, in the system of reflexology, the psyche turned out to be a by-product (epiphenomenon) of physiological and behavioral processes; it turned out that objective psychology "rejected" subjective ".

An objective approach was also developed in the physiological school of Ivan Petrovich Pavlov (1849-1936), to psychology, however, for the most part he was careful. (As already mentioned, V. M. Bekhterev and I. P. Pavlov had a serious impact on both domestic and foreign psychology - in particular, behaviorism.)

Proponents of an objective approach were also such psychologists as Alexander Fedorovich Lazursky (1874-1917), the creator of Russian differential psychology; Nikolai Nikolaevich Lange (1858-1921), Sechenov Ivan Mikhailovich (1829-1905) - a great Russian physiologist and psychologist. He developed the natural-scientific theory of mental regulation of behavior, putting forward and experimentally substantiating the idea that acts of conscious and unconscious mental life are, in fact, reflexive. Sechenov's ideas became fundamental for many supporters of the natural-scientific approach in psychology and decisively influenced the formation of experimental psychology in Russia. The main psychological works: “Reflexes of the brain”, “To whom and how to develop psychology”, “Elements of thought”.

author of an original theory of perception and attention; Vladimir Alexandrovich Wagner (1849-1934), founder of domestic comparative and zoopsychology; and many others.

As we said, another tradition of Russian scientific psychology goes back to the ideas of W. Wundt.

A bright figure here was the well-known to you Georgy Ivanovich Chelpanov (1862-1936), the founder of the Psychological Institute in Moscow. The experimental method - despite the fact that G.I. Chelpanov actively promoted it - remained nonetheless secondary to him in relation to self-observation.

We also note one more direction, which, however, cannot be considered scientific in the usual sense. This direction can be called spiritual and philosophical, and its representatives did not consider it possible to conduct an experimental study of mental phenomena based on the principles of the natural sciences.

For example, Konstantin Dmitrievich Cavelin (1828–1895) strongly opposed the study of psychic phenomena on the basis of physiology, believing consciousness and matter to be fundamentally different in essence and in cognizability. (His 1872 work, “Tasks of Psychology,” provoked the response of I. M. Sechenov, who claimed in his work “To whom and how to develop psychology,” that physiologists should be involved in this development as those who possess the experimental method). This line of Russian psychology, associated with the names of many Russian religious philosophers who considered themselves psychologists, in the unfolding discussions of the turn of the century sharply polemicized with the natural sciences; further revolutionary and post-revolutionary events will force most of these brilliant thinkers to leave the country (and the remaining will be doomed to a very difficult and most often short life), and the spiritual problems in Russian psychology will essentially fade from the beginning of the 1920s.
XX century and will begin to revive today.

The scientific confrontation of various areas in psychology in the post-revolutionary years was also burdened by a new ideological situation related to the political restructuring of society and the reorientation of science to the philosophy of Marxism.

A small digression is needed here. In recent years, criticism of Marxism has acquired a “total” character, and its supporters appear to be a kind of indispensable villains or opportunists. There are undoubted reasons for such a judgment, but indiscriminate criticism always contains the danger of blindness both in relation to the philosophy of Marxism itself and in relation to the people who accepted it. Marxism had a serious impact not only on Russian - "ideologized" - psychology, but also on foreign, primarily because of the humanistic potential laid down in it; it is this aspect (but not the program of restructuring society as such) that largely determined, for example, the position of A. Adler (defense of the “little man”) or E. Fromm (the problem of the alienation of man in society). Marxism allowed in many ways to see a person not as a “Robinson", but as an activist included in the social world, creating and creating him.

Of course, in domestic science as a whole, and in psychology in particular, numerous ideologists from science acted, along with others, in fact, parasitizing on Marxian ideas; but there were those who came to Marxism regardless of the political situation and before it arose (for example, P.P. Blonsky) and who developed Marxism often in opposition to its official interpretations - it was those who developed, and not dogmatically followed it. It is with these names that the main achievements of Soviet psychology are associated.

The first Russian psychologist to proclaim the need for restructuring psychology on the basis of Marxism in the early 1920s was Pavel Petrovich Blonsky (1884 — J941), and the program for restructuring psychological science was formulated by Konstantin Nikolaevich Kornilov (1879-1957). By the way, both of them were students of G. I. Chelpanov, who was not a supporter of Marxism and who tried to defend psychology as a non-ideological science; in the new political situation, students found it possible to oppose the teacher.

As a theorist of psychology, K. N. Kornilov tried to remove the contradiction between objective psychology and subjective psychology; this attempt was embodied in the concept that he developed, called “reactology”. In many ways, it was similar to what you know.

behaviorism; K. N. Kornilov even bluntly said that the new psychology should be guided by American behavioral science. Actually, reactology regarded psychology as a science of behavior. The psyche was interpreted through the concept of "reaction", which meant the response of the whole organism (rather than individual organs) to external influences. In fact, the concept of “reaction” was similar to the concept of “reflex”, but broader in content, which also assumed psychological characteristics (at the highest levels of development of living organisms).

Reactology existed until the beginning of the 30s, when its insufficiency was clearly indicated for discussion from the point of view of Marxism of a number of major psychological problems, especially the problem of consciousness.

P. P. Blonsky also interpreted psychology as a science of the behavior of living beings, arguing in 1920 the need to create a "psychology without a soul." (Note, however, that he denoted the fundamental features of social behavior).

Ankylosing spondylitis, Kornilov’s reactology, Blonsky’s early psychological views are sometimes called “Russian behaviorism” in the literature, which sounds partly paradoxical (since, as they said, behaviorism itself arose under the influence of the ideas of Russian science).

These directions played an outstanding role in the formation of objective methods in psychology and seemed very attractive from the point of view of the possibility of a materialistic explanation of mental phenomena. As theories, they did not receive significant development in domestic science (although their principles and provisions were developed in the future), giving way to other approaches, which are discussed below.
<< Previous Next >>
= Skip to textbook content =


    The foundations of Russian scientific psychology were also laid in the late XIX - early XX centuries. . First of all, we note the natural-scientific direction, which has long-standing traditions originating from MV Lomonosov that were embodied in the period under consideration in the works of V. M. Bekhterev, the creator of the direction called “reflexology”. V. M. Bekhterev (1857-1927), a neuropathologist, psychologist, psychiatrist, created the first
  2. The main directions of differential psychological research
    As Rusalov V.M. points out [22, P.17], two main areas of research on individual differences can be distinguished, one of which answers the question “What distinguishes people from each other?”, The other - the question “How do these differences manifest and form?”. The first direction is connected with the study of the structure of psychological properties. The main objective of this direction is to highlight
  3. “Psychosocial approach in the context of urgent tasks and the main trends in the development of psychological science in Russia”
    The first chapter presents the author’s view on the history and prospects of development of Russian psychology in the context of solving urgent problems of modern Russian society. The limitations are shown both in methodological and organizational plans, in modern conditions, of the historically developed paradigm model of the development of psychological science. The expediency of the transition to
  4. The main directions of military psychological research in Russia after 1917
    Military psychology developed after 1918 unevenly and controversially. Along with the years of the development of military psychological research, there were periods of calm on the psychological front and even moments when the need for military psychology was called into question. After 1918, at different times, military psychological research was carried out in the following main areas: 1)
  5. The main areas of psychological research of the military team
    In military teams (units, combat crews, crews, guards), a military psychologist solves the tasks of research, correction and the formation of their socio-psychological characteristics. The main goal of his work is to optimize joint military activities, interpersonal relationships, as well as the moral and psychological state of individual soldiers. To understand the features
  6. The main directions and tasks of the psychological research of the military team
    The main goal of the psychologist's work in military teams (units, outposts, guards, combat crews, crews) is to optimize the joint activities of military personnel, interpersonal relationships in a military team based on in-depth study of the moral and psychological state of individual military personnel and socio-psychological phenomena that arise in military teams .
  7. The main directions, tasks and principles of the organization of psychological work in the troops
    Like any servicing type of activity, psychological work arises in connection with the need to solve specific problems that adversely affect the level of combat readiness of the Armed Forces. These problems are the result of contradictions caused by the content of the modern transition period, the complexity of the political, economic and sociocultural situations in the country,
  8. The main directions, tasks and principles of the organization of psychological work
    The main directions, tasks and principles of psychological organization
  10. Identification of priority areas for improving medical legislation in the context of reforming domestic health care
    Since the beginning of the 1990s, the Russian Federation has undergone significant changes in the economic, political, social spheres of public life. The demographic situation has worsened. The mortality rate of the population exceeds that of developed countries by several times and amounts to 16 people per 1000 population. The birth rate has decreased, the population decline is more than 460,000 people
  11. The concept of hygiene as a science. Hygienic research methods. The history of hygiene. The role of domestic scientists in the development of hygiene science
    Hygiene is a science of health, a preventive discipline that develops, on the basis of studying the interaction of the body and environmental factors (natural and social), standards and measures that are implemented to prevent diseases, and creates optimal conditions for human life and well-being. The term hygiene itself comes from the Greek word for
  12. History of the domestic psychological education service
    In our country, the first attempts at the practical use of psychology in the education and upbringing of children also arose at the beginning of the 20th century. Specialists in the field of pedology were engaged in this. The content of pedology as a scientific and practical field of activity was a comprehensive study of the child, combining and using a variety of psychological, physiological and sociological knowledge in working with
  13. Features of psychological science
    Psychology is a science of a special type. The development of psychology as a science was preceded by the development of two large areas of knowledge: the natural sciences and philosophy; Psychology has arisen at the intersection of these areas, so it is still unclear whether psychology is considered to be a natural science or humanitarian. It follows from the foregoing that none of these answers appears to be correct. In system
  14. Military psychology as a branch of psychological science
    At present, more than ever, the hopes of military specialists and leaders of all levels are focused on military psychology. These expectations are connected with the special - applied role of military psychological science in ensuring the effectiveness of the vital activity of troops in both peacetime and wartime. In connection with the inclusion in the combat manuals of the types of the Armed Forces of a section on
  15. Military psychology as a branch of psychological science
    Training issues: 1. The subject of military psychology 2. The basic principles, methods and tasks of military psychology Everyday tasks performed by military specialists (leaders, teachers, military psychologists, etc.) require them to understand the laws of manifestation and formation of the psychology of the personality of a serviceman and military collectives in conditions of various types of military
  16. Military psychology as a branch of modern psychological science, its structure and functions
    Military psychology is one of the independent applied branches of modern psychological science. Like any other branch of psychology, it has its own subject and object of study, its own tasks and structure. It should be noted that despite the fairly long period of existence of this branch of psychological science, there is no generally accepted definition of military psychology. Therefore further,
  17. The transformation of military psychology into an independent branch of psychological science
    Since the middle of the XIX century, the emergence of military psychology, as an independent branch of psychological knowledge. The field of study of military psychology is the phenomena associated with the battle, the personality of a soldier, group military activity. This is expressed in the fact that: an understanding of the subject develops; methods of military psychological research are being developed; stand out clearly
  18. The state of military psychological research in Russia after the end of the Great Patriotic War
    In the military educational institutions of the USSR, increased attention was paid to military psychology after the Second World War. This was expressed in the organizational design of military psychology, the creation of departments, laboratories, research groups. So, the Department of Psychology at the Khlebnikov Military Pedagogical Institute (head of the department G.G. Egorov) began to work, which he prepared for the Armed Forces
  19. Nodal sections of military-psychological science of the mid-nineteenth and early twentieth centuries
    Russian military-psychological thought is distinguished by the fact that the problem of personality has always stood out in it as the most important. Its scientific development using general psychological and military psychological methods began in the second half of the 19th century. This is due to: Cultural and historical conditions for the development of Russia and the Russian army. The presence of humanistic traditions, moral and ethical
  20. Social, medical and psychological aspects of science
    Valeology (valeologia - lat hello, be healthy) - the science of health. For the first time, the term proposed by prof. I.I. Brechman in 1980, turned out to be quite relevant, capacious and is currently being formalized into science - fundamental and necessary science, first of all, by its need for people who want to devote themselves to education, upbringing, preventive work, treatment and
Medical portal "MedguideBook" © 2014-2019