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BASIC DIRECTIONS OF DOMESTIC PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE
The foundations of Russian scientific psychology were also laid in the late XIX - early XX centuries.
First of all, we note the natural science direction, which has long-standing traditions originating from MV Lomonosov, embodied in the period under review in the works of V. M, Ankylosing spondylitis, the creator of the direction called “reflexology”.
Vladimir Mikhailovich Bekhterev (1857-1927), a neuropathologist, psychologist, psychiatrist, created the first experimental psychological laboratory in Russia ”(1885, Kazan) and the Psychoneurological Institute (1907, St. Petersburg), in which comprehensive studies were carried out person (later the traditions of an integrated approach were developed by a Leningrad psychologist
Boris Gerasimovich Ananyev).
Reflexology, striving to be an objective science, was widely used physiological to explain mental phenomena. principles, studying reflexes that occur with the participation of the brain (as you know, in Russian science this approach is associated with the name of Ivan Mikhailovich Sechenov (1829-1905).
With regard to Russian psychology, which basically followed the traditions of W. Wundt at that time, reflexology played a significant role in moving it beyond the principles of self-observation, “pure consciousness”; at the same time, in the system of reflexology, the psyche turned out to be a by-product (epiphenomenon) of physiological and behavioral processes; it turned out that objective psychology "rejected" subjective ".
An objective approach was also developed in the physiological school of Ivan Petrovich Pavlov (1849-1936), to psychology, however, for the most part he was careful. (As already mentioned, V. M. Bekhterev and I. P. Pavlov had a serious impact on both domestic and foreign psychology - in particular, behaviorism.)
Proponents of an objective approach were also such psychologists as Alexander Fedorovich Lazursky (1874-1917), the creator of Russian differential psychology; Nikolai Nikolaevich Lange (1858-1921), Sechenov Ivan Mikhailovich (1829-1905) - a great Russian physiologist and psychologist. He developed the natural-scientific theory of mental regulation of behavior, putting forward and experimentally substantiating the idea that acts of conscious and unconscious mental life are, in fact, reflexive. Sechenov's ideas became fundamental for many supporters of the natural-scientific approach in psychology and decisively influenced the formation of experimental psychology in Russia. The main psychological works: “Reflexes of the brain”, “To whom and how to develop psychology”, “Elements of thought”.
author of an original theory of perception and attention; Vladimir Alexandrovich Wagner (1849-1934), founder of domestic comparative and zoopsychology; and many others.
As we said, another tradition of Russian scientific psychology goes back to the ideas of W. Wundt.
A bright figure here was the well-known to you Georgy Ivanovich Chelpanov (1862-1936), the founder of the Psychological Institute in Moscow. The experimental method - despite the fact that G.I. Chelpanov actively promoted it - remained nonetheless secondary to him in relation to self-observation.
We also note one more direction, which, however, cannot be considered scientific in the usual sense. This direction can be called spiritual and philosophical, and its representatives did not consider it possible to conduct an experimental study of mental phenomena based on the principles of the natural sciences.
For example, Konstantin Dmitrievich Cavelin (1828–1895) strongly opposed the study of psychic phenomena on the basis of physiology, believing consciousness and matter to be fundamentally different in essence and in cognizability. (His 1872 work, “Tasks of Psychology,” provoked the response of I. M. Sechenov, who claimed in his work “To whom and how to develop psychology,” that physiologists should be involved in this development as those who possess the experimental method). This line of Russian psychology, associated with the names of many Russian religious philosophers who considered themselves psychologists, in the unfolding discussions of the turn of the century sharply polemicized with the natural sciences; further revolutionary and post-revolutionary events will force most of these brilliant thinkers to leave the country (and the remaining will be doomed to a very difficult and most often short life), and the spiritual problems in Russian psychology will essentially fade from the beginning of the 1920s.
XX century and will begin to revive today.
The scientific confrontation of various areas in psychology in the post-revolutionary years was also burdened by a new ideological situation related to the political restructuring of society and the reorientation of science to the philosophy of Marxism.
A small digression is needed here. In recent years, criticism of Marxism has acquired a “total” character, and its supporters appear to be a kind of indispensable villains or opportunists. There are undoubted reasons for such a judgment, but indiscriminate criticism always contains the danger of blindness both in relation to the philosophy of Marxism itself and in relation to the people who accepted it. Marxism had a serious impact not only on Russian - "ideologized" - psychology, but also on foreign, primarily because of the humanistic potential laid down in it; it is this aspect (but not the program of restructuring society as such) that largely determined, for example, the position of A. Adler (defense of the “little man”) or E. Fromm (the problem of the alienation of man in society). Marxism allowed in many ways to see a person not as a “Robinson", but as an activist included in the social world, creating and creating him.
Of course, in domestic science as a whole, and in psychology in particular, numerous ideologists from science acted, along with others, in fact, parasitizing on Marxian ideas; but there were those who came to Marxism regardless of the political situation and before it arose (for example, P.P. Blonsky) and who developed Marxism often in opposition to its official interpretations - it was those who developed, and not dogmatically followed it. It is with these names that the main achievements of Soviet psychology are associated.
The first Russian psychologist to proclaim the need for restructuring psychology on the basis of Marxism in the early 1920s was Pavel Petrovich Blonsky (1884 — J941), and the program for restructuring psychological science was formulated by Konstantin Nikolaevich Kornilov (1879-1957). By the way, both of them were students of G. I. Chelpanov, who was not a supporter of Marxism and who tried to defend psychology as a non-ideological science; in the new political situation, students found it possible to oppose the teacher.
As a theorist of psychology, K. N. Kornilov tried to remove the contradiction between objective psychology and subjective psychology; this attempt was embodied in the concept that he developed, called “reactology”. In many ways, it was similar to what you know.
behaviorism; K. N. Kornilov even bluntly said that the new psychology should be guided by American behavioral science. Actually, reactology regarded psychology as a science of behavior. The psyche was interpreted through the concept of "reaction", which meant the response of the whole organism (rather than individual organs) to external influences. In fact, the concept of “reaction” was similar to the concept of “reflex”, but broader in content, which also assumed psychological characteristics (at the highest levels of development of living organisms).
Reactology existed until the beginning of the 30s, when its insufficiency was clearly indicated for discussion from the point of view of Marxism of a number of major psychological problems, especially the problem of consciousness.
P. P. Blonsky also interpreted psychology as a science of the behavior of living beings, arguing in 1920 the need to create a "psychology without a soul." (Note, however, that he denoted the fundamental features of social behavior).
Ankylosing spondylitis, Kornilov’s reactology, Blonsky’s early psychological views are sometimes called “Russian behaviorism” in the literature, which sounds partly paradoxical (since, as they said, behaviorism itself arose under the influence of the ideas of Russian science).
These directions played an outstanding role in the formation of objective methods in psychology and seemed very attractive from the point of view of the possibility of a materialistic explanation of mental phenomena. As theories, they did not receive significant development in domestic science (although their principles and provisions were developed in the future), giving way to other approaches, which are discussed below.
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