home
about the project
Medical news
For authors
Licensed books on medicine
<< Previous Next >>

MAIN BRANCHES OF PSYCHOLOGY

In discussing the connection of psychology with other sciences, we outlined, although far from completely, the circle of various psychological disciplines, i.e., branches of psychology, thereby addressing the question of the structure of modern psychology. We will try to do this more systematization, although this is not always easy: the branches of psychology arise and develop not by the will of a single methodologist, who prescribes the logic of development to science, but primarily based on the requirements of life and practice. In this regard, any scheme will be conditional, and the complex processes of differentiation and integration of psychological disciplines will remain beyond it.

The fundamental part of psychology is represented by general psychology - a discipline trying to find answers to fundamental questions facing psychological science as a whole, develop theoretical principles, substantiate methods of psychological knowledge, formulate the basic laws of existence and development of mental reality. The most global of the questions of interest to her (we had the opportunity to partly trace them when considering the formation of the subject of psychology): what is the psyche? What are its structure and functions? By what laws does it develop in phylogenesis and ontogenesis? What are the levels of its development and by what criteria can they be distinguished? How do psyche and brain relate? What role does the innate and acquired, biological and social, play in mental development? What are the criteria for distinguishing between normal and abnormal development of the psyche?

In addition to problems related to the psyche as a whole, general psychologists consider more specific ones related to specific mental processes, states, and properties. Since the main interest for psychology is a person, general psychology primarily discusses issues related to the personality, activity, communication, cognitive processes of a person, studying them both theoretically and experimentally. (Sometimes, as separate disciplines in the framework of general psychology, they speak of the psychology of personality, the psychology of activity, the psychology of cognitive processes).

The main questions raised by general psychology are at the center of more private branches of psychological science, which are relatively independent areas of knowledge (we partially examined them in the previous section). Thus, the problems of the development of the psyche in phylogenesis are specifically considered in comparative psychology and zoopsychology (comparative psychology focuses on comparing the psyche of animals and humans, zoopsychology is the science of the psyche of animals; sometimes they are combined under the codename “evolutionary biopsychology”); patterns of ontogenetic development of the psyche in connection with age - in developmental psychology; correlation of brain and psyche — in psychophysiology and neuropsychology;

problems of abnormal development of the psyche — in special psychology; patterns of interaction between the individual and society, the formation and development of groups — in social psychology; patterns of work - in the psychology of labor.

Each of these industries develops its own relatively autonomous theoretical concepts and, in turn, includes a number of more private disciplines that are correlated with individual aspects of the problem.
So, in age psychology, there are: child psychology (with its own unit by age), adolescent psychology, youth psychology, psychology of adulthood, psychology of the elderly and old (gerontopsychology). Special psychology includes pathopsychology, which studies the laws of the breakdown of mental activity in diseases; oligophrenopsychology, studying the features of the mentally retarded: typhlopsychology (psychology of the blind), sign-psychology (psychology of the deaf).

Social psychology as the main sections includes the psychology of communication and interaction of people, the psychology of groups, the social psychology of personality.

The psychology of labor is extremely ramified, providing the basis for the development of areas of psychological knowledge that are correlated with specific types of human activity. These include engineering psychology that studies human activities in the “man-machine” system, aviation psychology, management psychology, etc.

Such a “division” of psychology does not mean a lack of connection between these areas. On the contrary, a whole series of psychological disciplines is possible only thanks to their interaction, appealing to the theoretical schemes developed in them, experimental data, and working methods. Let us follow this by the example of pedagogical psychology — a discipline that studies, as you recall, the psychological problems of training and education. General psychology "gives" her knowledge of the general laws of personality development and cognitive processes; differential psychology (a branch of psychology that studies individual psychological differences) —principles and methods for identifying individual characteristics — the basis of an individual approach; developmental psychology — knowledge of the laws of the development of the psyche at various age stages and methods of monitoring the course of development, without which it is impossible to choose the content and methods of training and education; social psychology - knowledge about the features of communication (and training and education is a specifically organized process of communication), the laws of development and interaction of groups (class, school, teaching staff), the interaction of individuals and groups (student-class, teacher-class, teacher-pedagogical collective); special psychology provides the basis for the selection of students in special educational institutions and the construction of the educational process there; the psychology of the teacher’s labor is an integral part of educational psychology.
<< Previous Next >>
= Skip to textbook content =

MAIN BRANCHES OF PSYCHOLOGY

  1. The main branches of psychology
    Modern psychology is a highly ramified science with many branches. The branches of psychology are relatively independent areas of scientific psychological research. In this case, due to the rapid development of psychological science every 4-5 years, new directions appear. The emergence of branches of psychology is due, firstly, to the widespread adoption of
  2. The main branches of psychology
    In discussing the connection of psychology with other sciences, we outlined, although far from completely, the circle of various psychological disciplines, that is, branches of psychology, thereby addressing the question of the structure of modern psychology. We will try to do this in a more systematic way, although this is not always easy: branches of psychology do not arise and develop by the will of a single methodologist prescribing science
  3. The main branches of psychology
    Science seeks to reflect the complex psychic reality that is the subject of psychology in its essential properties and in a generalized form, i.e. in terms. Concepts ultimately constitute the framework of any science. Together, they form a categorical system. Category - an extremely broad concept, which reflects the most common and essential properties, signs, relationships and
  4. The structure and main branches of modern psychology
    Starting in 1918, the main efforts of domestic military psychologists were aimed at providing combat training for a new type of mass army - the Red Army. Their work took into account the experience of world military psychological thought of that time, corresponding to the tasks of the new army. In the works of military theorists M.V. Frunze, A.S. Bubnov, N.I. Podvoisky, psychologists P.I. Izmestyev, A.N. Suvorov, G.F. Girs and others
  5. Developmental psychology and developmental psychology - an interdisciplinary branch of scientific knowledge
    In recent decades, developmental psychology (developmental psychology) has changed both in content and in interdisciplinary relationships. On the one hand, it exerts influence on other scientific disciplines, and on the other, it itself is influenced by them, assimilating everything that expands its substantive content. Biology, genetics, developmental physiology. These disciplines are important above all.
  6. Branches of psychology
    Modern psychology is a wide area of ​​knowledge, including a number of separate disciplines and scientific areas. The psyche is multidimensional. Its historical and social development led to the need to integrate many sciences that directly or indirectly addressed human life issues. According to S.L. Rubinshtein, the branches can be conditionally divided into main (basic)
  7. Branches of scientific psychology
    Modern psychology is a ramified system of industries, among which there are fundamental and applied, general and special. The fundamental branches of psychology are of general importance for understanding and explaining the psychology and behavior of people, no matter what specific activity they are engaged in. The main such industry is general psychology, which explores
  8. Branches of modern psychology
    Modern psychology is a whole complex of scientific disciplines, many of which claim to be considered independent sciences. Various authors count up to one hundred branches of psychology. These scientific disciplines are at different stages of development, associated with various areas of human practice. The core of modern psychology is general psychology, which studies
  9. Branches of scientific psychology
    As we recall, psychology became an independent science only at the end of the 19th century and during the 20th century accumulated such a huge amount of scientific knowledge about the world of psychic phenomena that psychologists themselves often do not quite clearly realize how much they know. Psychology has become a very ramified science, and specialists in one branch of psychology can no longer be sufficiently competent in another field.
  10. Subject, branches and types of psychology
    Psychology studies the psyche in all its manifestations. Accordingly, the subject of psychology is the psyche. Modern psychology is divided into many sections. Such a division can be imagined in the form of a tree, which has a trunk and many branches. This is a tree of psychology. Its trunk is general psychology, which studies the psyche of a healthy adult. Total
  11. Applied branches of labor psychology
    The psychology of labor includes a number of other industries that study individual types of labor activity. Management psychology deals with various psychological problems of managerial activity: the study of personal qualities, the style and methods of work of a leader, the study of factors that increase the effectiveness of leadership. Aviation Psychology Explores
  12. The transformation of military psychology into an independent branch of psychological science
    Since the middle of the XIX century, the emergence of military psychology, as an independent branch of psychological knowledge. The field of study of military psychology is the phenomena associated with the battle, the personality of a soldier, group military activity. This is expressed in the fact that: an understanding of the subject develops; methods of military psychological research are being developed; stand out clearly
  13. Military psychology as a branch of psychological science
    Training issues: 1. The subject of military psychology 2. The basic principles, methods and tasks of military psychology Everyday tasks performed by military specialists (leaders, teachers, military psychologists, etc.) require them to understand the laws of manifestation and formation of the psychology of the personality of a serviceman and military collectives in conditions of various types of military
  14. Military psychology as a branch of modern psychological science, its structure and functions
    Military psychology is one of the independent applied branches of modern psychological science. Like any other branch of psychology, it has its own subject and object of study, its own tasks and structure. It should be noted that despite the fairly long period of existence of this branch of psychological science, there is no generally accepted definition of military psychology. Therefore further,
  15. MILITARY PSYCHOLOGY AND PEDAGOGY AS A BRANCH OF SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE
    For a long time, theorists and practitioners of psychology and pedagogy have been arguing: what is primary to each other - psychology or pedagogy? Even in the title of textbooks one can often find different approaches - in one case, “Psychology and Pedagogy”, in the other, “Pedagogy and Psychology”. Who is right? Leaving behind each of the disputants the right to uphold their point of view, it nevertheless follows
  16. Military psychology as a branch of psychological science
    At present, more than ever, the hopes of military specialists and leaders of all levels are focused on military psychology. These expectations are connected with the special - applied role of military psychological science in ensuring the effectiveness of the vital activity of troops in both peacetime and wartime. In connection with the inclusion in the combat manuals of the types of the Armed Forces of a section on
  17. Scientific directions and branches of psychology
    Scientific directions and industries
  18. MILITARY PSYCHOLOGY AS A BRANCH OF PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE
    MILITARY PSYCHOLOGY AS AN INDUSTRY OF PSYCHOLOGICAL
  19. MILITARY PSYCHOLOGY AS A BRANCH OF PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE
    MILITARY PSYCHOLOGY AS AN INDUSTRY OF PSYCHOLOGICAL
Medical portal "MedguideBook" © 2014-2019
info@medicine-guidebook.com