Licensed books on medicine
<< Previous || Next >> |
The main branches of psychology
Science seeks to reflect the complex psychic reality that is the subject of psychology in its essential properties and in a generalized form, i.e. in terms. Concepts ultimately constitute the framework of any science. Together, they form a categorical system.
Category - an extremely broad concept, which reflects the most common and essential properties, signs, relationships and relationships of objects, phenomena of reality and knowledge
A change in the scientific outlook on human psychology is associated with a change in categories, with filling them with new content. In this sense, a change in psychology as a science is closely related to two areas that ultimately characterize its structure:
- differentiation of branches of psychology;
- design and development of research areas and schools.
The first direction is closely connected with the ontological characteristics of the object of psychological research, the second - with the epistemological prerequisites for the formation of psychological knowledge itself. In the first case, we are talking about various areas of human activity, in the second - about possible methodological approaches to the study of the mental.
Moreover, the differentiation of the branches of psychology and theoretical directions has fundamentally different mechanisms. So, the specifics of the functioning of the psyche of people in various spheres of human activity, especially the problems that arise in this case, requiring the involvement of scientific knowledge to solve them, serve as an objective basis for distinguishing various branches of psychology. These industries can be classified for various reasons.
Modern psychology is an extremely differentiated science. Various authors count from 50 to 100 relatively independent branches of it, claiming the status of “full-fledged” scientific disciplines.
The branches of psychology are distinguished for many reasons:
a) for the purpose of the activity (obtaining or applying new knowledge): fundamental and applied sciences;
b) on the subject of research: psychology of development, creativity, personality, etc .;
c) by the type of connections of psychology with other sciences: psychophysiology, neuropsychology, mathematical psychology;
d) in relations with various areas of practice: organizational psychology, engineering psychology, sports psychology, pedagogical psychology, political psychology, legal psychology, social psychology, military psychology and several others;
e) according to the object and specifics of development - animal psychology (zoopsychology), human psychology (anthropological psychology), including child and age psychology, pathopsychology.
Thus, the differentiation of psychology into separate sectors meets the practical tasks facing science and having its own specifics.
The fundamental part of psychology is represented by general psychology - a discipline trying to find answers to the fundamental questions facing psychological science as a whole, develop theoretical principles, substantiate methods of psychological knowledge, formulate the most important laws of the existence and development of psychic reality. The main issues addressed in its framework include:
* What is the psyche?
* What are its structure and functions?
* By what laws does it develop in phylogenesis and ontogenesis?
* What are the levels of its development and by what criteria can they be distinguished?
* How do the psyche and brain relate?
* What role does the innate and acquired, biological and social, play in mental development?
* What are the criteria for distinguishing between normal and abnormal development of the psyche?
In addition to problems related to the psyche as a whole, general psychology considers more specific problems related to specific mental processes, conditions and properties.
General psychology primarily discusses issues related to the personality, activity, communication, cognitive processes of a person, studying them both theoretically and experimentally.
The main issues raised by general psychology are at the center of more private branches of psychological science, which are relatively independent areas of knowledge. For example, the general purpose of educational psychology is the scientific and psychological substantiation of the conditions for the effectiveness of the educational process.
Military psychology explores the characteristics of the functioning of the human psyche in conditions of military activity, reveals the stress factors of the battle, their influence on the person, etc.
Engineering psychology considers the processes and means of information interaction between man and machine.
Age psychology, which studies the laws of ontogenetic development of the psyche, psychological characteristics of people of different ages, is aimed at creating a theory of human mental development in ontogenesis.
Problems of the development of the psyche in phylogenesis are specially considered in comparative psychology and zoopsychology (comparative psychology focuses on comparing the psyche of animals and humans, zoopsychology is the science of animal psyche; sometimes they are combined under the name of “evolutionary biopsychology”).
The correlation of the brain and the psyche is one of the key problems of psychophysiology and neuropsychology. The problems of the abnormal development of the psyche are studied by special psychology, the laws of work - the psychology of work. Each of these industries develops its own relatively autonomous theoretical concepts and, in turn, includes a number of more private disciplines that are correlated with individual aspects of the problem.
So, in age psychology, there are: child psychology (with its own unit by age), adolescent psychology, youth psychology, adult psychology, psychology of the elderly and old (gerontopsikhologiya).
Special psychology includes pathopsychology, which studies the laws of the breakdown of mental activity in diseases; oligophrenopsiology, studying the features of the mentally retarded: typhlopsychology (psychology of the blind), deaf psychology (psychology of the deaf).
The patterns of interaction between the individual and society, the formation and development of groups are investigated by social psychology, which as the main sections includes the psychology of communication and interaction of people, group psychology, social psychology of the individual.
The psychology of labor is extremely ramified, providing the basis for the development of areas of psychological knowledge that are correlated with specific types of human activity. These include: engineering psychology, studying human activities in the "man - machine" system, aviation psychology, management psychology, etc.
| << Previous || Next >> |
| = Skip to textbook content = |
The main branches of psychology
- The main branches of psychology
Modern psychology is a highly ramified science with many branches. The branches of psychology are relatively independent areas of scientific psychological research. In this case, due to the rapid development of psychological science every 4-5 years, new directions appear. The emergence of branches of psychology is due, firstly, to the widespread adoption of
- The main branches of psychology
In discussing the connection of psychology with other sciences, we outlined, although far from completely, the circle of various psychological disciplines, that is, branches of psychology, thereby addressing the question of the structure of modern psychology. We will try to do this in a more systematic way, although this is not always easy: branches of psychology do not arise and develop by the will of a single methodologist prescribing science
- MAIN BRANCHES OF PSYCHOLOGY
In discussing the connection of psychology with other sciences, we outlined, although far from completely, the circle of various psychological disciplines, i.e., branches of psychology, thereby addressing the question of the structure of modern psychology. We will try to do this more systematization, although this is not always easy: branches of psychology do not arise and develop by the will of a single methodologist prescribing science
- The structure and main branches of modern psychology
Starting in 1918, the main efforts of domestic military psychologists were aimed at providing combat training for a new type of mass army - the Red Army. Their work took into account the experience of world military psychological thought of that time, corresponding to the tasks of the new army. In the works of military theorists M.V. Frunze, A.S. Bubnov, N.I. Podvoisky, psychologists P.I. Izmestyev, A.N. Suvorov, G.F. Girs and others
- Developmental psychology and developmental psychology - an interdisciplinary branch of scientific knowledge
In recent decades, developmental psychology (developmental psychology) has changed both in content and in interdisciplinary relationships. On the one hand, it exerts influence on other scientific disciplines, and on the other, it itself is influenced by them, assimilating everything that expands its substantive content. Biology, genetics, developmental physiology. These disciplines are important above all.
- Branches of psychology
Modern psychology is a wide area of knowledge, including a number of separate disciplines and scientific areas. The psyche is multidimensional. Its historical and social development led to the need to integrate many sciences that directly or indirectly addressed human life issues. According to S.L. Rubinshtein, the branches can be conditionally divided into main (basic)
- Branches of scientific psychology
Modern psychology is a ramified system of industries, among which there are fundamental and applied, general and special. The fundamental branches of psychology are of general importance for understanding and explaining the psychology and behavior of people, no matter what specific activity they are engaged in. The main such industry is general psychology, which explores
- Branches of modern psychology
Modern psychology is a whole complex of scientific disciplines, many of which claim to be considered independent sciences. Various authors count up to one hundred branches of psychology. These scientific disciplines are at different stages of development, associated with various areas of human practice. The core of modern psychology is general psychology, which studies
- Branches of scientific psychology
As we recall, psychology became an independent science only at the end of the 19th century and during the 20th century accumulated such a huge amount of scientific knowledge about the world of psychic phenomena that psychologists themselves often do not quite clearly realize how much they know. Psychology has become a very ramified science, and specialists in one branch of psychology can no longer be sufficiently competent in another field.
- Subject, branches and types of psychology
Psychology studies the psyche in all its manifestations. Accordingly, the subject of psychology is the psyche. Modern psychology is divided into many sections. Such a division can be imagined in the form of a tree, which has a trunk and many branches. This is a tree of psychology. Its trunk is general psychology, which studies the psyche of a healthy adult. Total
- Applied branches of labor psychology
The psychology of labor includes a number of other industries that study individual types of labor activity. Management psychology deals with various psychological problems of managerial activity: the study of personal qualities, the style and methods of work of a leader, the study of factors that increase the effectiveness of leadership. Aviation Psychology Explores
- The transformation of military psychology into an independent branch of psychological science
Since the middle of the XIX century, the emergence of military psychology, as an independent branch of psychological knowledge. The field of study of military psychology is the phenomena associated with the battle, the personality of a soldier, group military activity. This is expressed in the fact that: an understanding of the subject develops; methods of military psychological research are being developed; stand out clearly
- Military psychology as a branch of psychological science
Training issues: 1. The subject of military psychology 2. The basic principles, methods and tasks of military psychology Everyday tasks performed by military specialists (leaders, teachers, military psychologists, etc.) require them to understand the laws of manifestation and formation of the psychology of the personality of a serviceman and military collectives in conditions of various types of military
- Military psychology as a branch of modern psychological science, its structure and functions
Military psychology is one of the independent applied branches of modern psychological science. Like any other branch of psychology, it has its own subject and object of study, its own tasks and structure. It should be noted that despite the fairly long period of existence of this branch of psychological science, there is no generally accepted definition of military psychology. Therefore further,
- MILITARY PSYCHOLOGY AND PEDAGOGY AS A BRANCH OF SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE
For a long time, theorists and practitioners of psychology and pedagogy have been arguing: what is primary to each other - psychology or pedagogy? Even in the title of textbooks one can often find different approaches - in one case, “Psychology and Pedagogy”, in the other, “Pedagogy and Psychology”. Who is right? Leaving behind each of the disputants the right to uphold their point of view, it nevertheless follows