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Characteristics of the personality of the teacher-psychologist

By the word "personality" people understand a holistic, mature person who has reached a high level of development, in which biological (that is, data from a person from birth) and social (acquired by him during his lifetime, during training, education and independent development) are inextricably intertwined . In addition to the general requirements for all those engaged in pedagogical activities, there are special requirements for the teacher-psychologist to his personality, communication, and the ability to interact with other people.

For the successful work of a teacher-psychologist, the presence of social sensitivity (social perception) is extremely important. Social sensitivity is a special sensitivity of an emotional nature to the psychic manifestations of other people, their aspirations, values ​​and goals. It lies in the ability of a specialist to notice the mood and behavior of another person, to understand and accept them. The teacher-psychologist should be able to build his interaction with the interlocutor taking into account both his and his own mood, behavior, perception of the world. In order to develop social sensitivity in oneself, it is necessary to show attention and imagination.

It should be understood that to “understand and accept” the mood of another person does not mean following his lead. Sometimes students object: “The student is not in the mood to answer the lesson, so what, then, does not ask him? And if he is always not in the mood? ” This is an erroneous understanding of social sensitivity. There may be times when a child for one reason or another cannot or does not want to answer. In this situation, the first step is to find out the reason, the second is to allow not to do this, and the third is to agree when he will nevertheless answer the material. In this case, social sensitivity will be shown and the goals of training and education will be realized.

Social sensitivity includes:

a) sensitivity in observation - the ability to see and remember the actions and statements of people;

b) theoretical sensitivity - the ability to use theoretical knowledge in order to draw conclusions about students;

c) nomothetic sensitivity - the ability to apply to a particular person knowledge about the behavior of representatives of the group to which he belongs;

d) idiographic sensitivity - the ability to recognize a specific person in the course of a long interaction with him and to improve the quality of further actions.

In the course of communication with another person, the teacher-psychologist forms a holistic image of the other person, correlating the results of observing his behavior with the available theoretical knowledge about the behavior and characteristics of the personality of people. The formed image determines the emotional attitude, the level of interest of the teacher in the interlocutor, actions and actions. That is why it is extremely important that the created image does not turn out to be false and is as detailed and accurate as possible.

The lack of social sensitivity is one of the main sources of problems in the communication of teachers, including psychological teachers and students. The ability to correctly identify and anticipate feelings, thoughts and their behavior develops with work experience and age, but this is possible if an adult has developed reflection. The development of social sensitivity is hampered by the presence of a “halo effect” (a strong judgment on one trait that applies to the whole personality), a projection (transfer of one’s qualities, especially undesirable ones, to another person), and a stereotypical assessment.

“Stereotype” in Greek means “hard print”, that is, repeated reproduction, which is an exact copy of the original. Stereotypical behavior, perception or assessment is repeating without changes, reproducing the well-known, stereotyped, stereotyped. Any stereotype carries both a positive and a negative beginning. The undoubted advantage of stereotypes is that they facilitate the understanding of other people and finding a “common language” with students. The negative effect is not in the stereotype as such, but in the rigidity of the teacher-psychologist who does not want to notice the student’s discrepancy with the “template” chosen for him and change the stereotype to another, more suitable for the person.

Studies have shown that everyone has their own typology, according to which he perceives and evaluates other people. Each type has its own character traits, features of behavior and appearance. When selecting one or two traits in a new person, other traits of the type are automatically assigned to him. A case in point is when a teacher, having seen a neat, tidy girl with an interested facial expression among the students in the new class, decides that she will be an excellent student, thereby automatically supplementing the appearance with other features of the stereotype of a “good student” that have not yet been identified. Having formed, the stereotype begins to determine the teacher’s behavior towards children.

There are people who throughout their lives use a limited circle of rigid, unchanging stereotypes and do not seek to analyze behavior - neither their own, nor those around them. But stereotyping can also occur in people prone to perceiving an individuality, for example, when meeting with a large number of strangers who need to be recognized in a short period of time, or when assessing people belonging to a different social group (by gender, age, social status and etc.). Thus, when getting acquainted with a new class (a large group of people of a different age and often a different social status), the teacher's actualized abilities are not the perception of personality, but stereotyping. Only then, after several months, can the ability to perceive individualities manifest itself, and, as a rule, this happens in relation to only some students who stand out from the group of peers.

One of the main characteristics of a stereotype is its stability over time. Having arisen once, it may not change for years. Moreover, the pedagogue-psychologist, who fell under the influence of the stereotype, is trying to look for evidence of the correctness of his point of view, to interpret all the facts in favor of the stereotype, and to provoke the appropriate behavior of students. It happens that at the same time he incorrectly explains what he sees or hears, or selects only one-sided information. It is good if the stereotype is positive (for example, the teacher perceives the student as a potential excellent student). Worse, if the teacher begins to unilaterally interpret the behavior of the student, whom he “recorded” in a group of lazy people and three-way students.

What to do in order not to fall under the power of stereotypes? The easiest way to adjust the stereotype at the stage of expectations. Any educated person is able to convince himself to review them and follow this process. In addition, the teacher’s behavior can be controlled by him by analyzing selective attention and biased judgment. Revision of the positions on the basis of which other people are evaluated is available for any educated person, all the more so it should be for a teacher-psychologist. The ability to critically analyze his behavior and the reasons for his attitude towards students will lead him to more objective relationships and assessments.

Developed ability to control oneself is another important feature of a teacher-psychologist. In managing yourself, four areas are most important: maintaining physical health; rational distribution of forces; overcoming difficulties; proper distribution of time.

The saying “In a healthy body is a healthy mind” is not just words. According to statistics, among young people graduating from high school, only 4% are absolutely healthy people. Frequent colds, scoliosis, impaired vision - this is not a complete list of the most common and most "harmless" diseases. Almost all of them are the result of neglect of their health. The result is increased fatigue, decreased ability to work and interest in life, and obtaining lower results in life and the profession.

Ways to maintain health are well known. For people leading a predominantly sedentary lifestyle (and students belong to this particular category of people), it is important to move, especially in the fresh air, a balanced diet, and relaxation after prolonged mental stress.

But what if a person is chronically or terminally ill? There is no single advice for everyone. The main thing is not to forget about the necessary procedures and observe the prescribed mode of work and rest, and in addition, to perform the permitted physical activities.

To people, especially young people, it seems that their strength and energy are unlimited. Perhaps this is so, but sometimes there are moments that require too much strength. It is then that the time comes to think about their rational distribution.

It should be remembered that strength can be increased if “nourished” by their respective emotions. So, students (the main "judges" of the professionalism of the teacher-psychologist) note that for effective work he needs the following personal qualities:

• striving for maximum flexibility;

• ability to empathy, attention to the needs of students;

• the ability to personalize teaching;

• Installation to create positive reinforcement for students;

• possession of a style of easy, informal, warm communication with students;

• the preference for verbal contacts in writing lesson;

• emotional poise, self-confidence, cheerfulness.

Ease of communication, flexibility in work, self-confidence with simultaneous attention to others and cheerfulness are inherent only to one who is open and natural in work. And this is possible only with self-expression. Such a need for self-expression is an essential component of pedagogical talent. Pedagogical skill is expressed in the ability to transform this desire into real behavior.

For the first time, the answer to the question: “How can one show talent in activity?” - given in the system K.S.
Stanislavsky. He came to the conclusion that for this it is necessary to use the power of the subconscious, not only as a rare, uncontrolled insight ("suddenly dawned"), but to be able to consciously master the subconscious, involuntary process of creativity. The state when the energy of the subconscious is available to a person (actor, teacher), he called "super task". A super-task is defined as a level of a person’s mental activity in the solution of creative tasks uncontrolled by consciousness. It is the supertask that is the true and basic source of energy, which is driven by the behavior of the educator-psychologist in an effort to convey to people the “great truth” about the highest moral values.

Each of the people is familiar with situations when an idea takes hold of consciousness (to do, get, find, etc.). If this idea captures a person completely, then it affects not only consciousness, but also the subconscious. In this case, “suddenly” favorable conditions are created - funds, helpers are found, circumstances are happily developing. Similar situations can and should be created consciously. If the teacher in his work does not proceed from momentary benefits, but from the personality orientation (for example, “Make people better,” “Give good”, etc.), then in his work circumstances will also be favorable and help to achieve the goal. This does not mean that the teacher should “burn at work”, not sleep at night, thinking how best to carry out any business. It is possible and necessary to have diverse interests. The main thing is to be aware of your focus in the work and not to change it.

You can learn to build up and effectively use your abilities if, in addition to expressing your feelings, you follow a few more rules: study and evaluate yourself - especially ways that give strength; take an active life position; tune in to success; calmly accept failures and learn from them.

In any work related to intensive communication with people, difficulties are inevitable. People respond differently to them. What one will experience for hours and even months, the other person simply will not notice. Most people need a certain level of workload in order to perform work with interest, and achieve the most valuable results in work, experiencing difficulties. More details on how to overcome difficulties and stressful situations will be described in the last section of Chapter 6 of this manual.

People who have enough time for everything in life are probably the happiest on earth. But, as a rule, the more versatile interests a person has, the less time he has. The teacher-psychologist, due to the characteristics of the profession, must clearly manage the time. For example, he cannot interrupt or finish the consultation or lesson earlier just because some urgent business has arisen, moreover, he should adhere to a predetermined work schedule, otherwise the children may have the impression that the specialist is not interested in their fate, refers to his work formally.

Where to start with a catastrophic lack of time? Of course, with an analysis of what it is being spent on. Most likely it turns out that a few hours a day "goes" to things that you can not do at all or combine one with the other. For example, people are completely wasting their time on doubts, worries and other unnecessary emotions or doing what others should do. The second step is planning, which is best done using a daily planner. The third step is monitoring the implementation of plans.

Correct distribution of time helps awareness. Many issues can be resolved by telephone without wasting time in person. The rational distribution of information (so that it can be found quickly), accumulated during the training process at the university and over the years of work, can significantly save time.

The desire for self-development and creativity in work is also a feature of the personality of the teacher-psychologist. Creativity (musical, artistic, needlework, home improvement, work, etc.) develops in the pedagogue-psychologist the ability to unconventionally relate to things, situations, communication and the ability to flexibly rebuild depending on the circumstances. A creative approach to life and communication with people can be developed with the help of simple exercises:

- exercises to enter the image of another person or thing help well, for example: to tell about an event in the classroom as if you are one of the students or an outside observer, or on behalf of a blackboard, a piece of chalk, a bird watching what is happening out the window, etc.;

- exercises on the ability to look at things outside the box, for example: find as many ways as possible how to use any thing (key, thimble, pen). Moreover, it’s important not only the number of options, but also the presence of non-standard solutions to this task, for example: a key can be used as a drawing, carpentry, locksmith, musical instruments, decoration, sinker, comb, it can be a spring that spills from under the ground, the key idea in the sentence, etc.

After training, you will notice not only how the number of options increases, but also that the number of difficulties in communicating with children and others is reduced.

Developed skills of influencing other people is another feature of the personality of a good teacher-psychologist. Traditionally, in communication, including pedagogical, there are four main methods of influence: infection, imitation, suggestion and persuasion.

Infection is a special way of exposure associated with the transmission of an emotional state from one person to another. When they say that a person is susceptible to the infection process, they mean that he unconsciously, involuntarily gives in to certain mental (emotional) states. In this case, it begins to act not as the mind suggests, but under the influence of the hormonal exchange taking place in it. He loses the ability to control his actions, predict the situation, control himself and others. Experienced teachers and lecturers are able to use the infection for their own purposes - as a rallying factor, to increase the enthusiasm of the audience, mobilizing people to perform an important task. The impulse that can cause deliberate infection can be applause, mass recitation, chanting of slogans, deliberately provoked glee, personal example (on community work days, etc.), the presence of a common significant goal.

The role of imitation in certain groups (including adolescent) is quite large. Imitation is one of the mechanisms for a child to master various forms of behavior, actions, norms of relations in society, characteristics of national culture, and profession. When a child imitates someone or something, he adopts external features (behavior, conditions) and reproduces them in his behavior. With age, the meaning of imitation changes - from superficial copying to imitation of those aspects of behavior that truly reflect the meaning of the situation. Роль педагога-психолога в формировании образцов для подражания в подростковом возрасте очень велика. Для школьников этого возраста характерно объединение в группы с особой субкультурой. Без умелого влияния извне со стороны взрослых такие группы бывают склонны к отклоняющемуся от норм поведению. При умелом влиянии подростки внутри таких групп осваивают новые роли, готовятся к экономически самостоятельной жизни, усваивают социально ответственное поведение и убеждения.

Внушение - целенаправленное, неаргументированное воздействие одного человека на другого или на группу. Особенностью внушения является то, что человек не оценивает поступающие к нему сведения или факты, не сравнивает с другой информацией, а воспринимает их «на веру». Таким образом, некритическое восприятие информации адресатом - основная отличительная черта внушения. Оно часто применяется на уроке и вне его. Объяснение нового материала в традиционной форме, опрос и выставление оценок, лекция, познавательная беседа, выступление на собрании - вот примеры использования метода внушения.

Применять внушение по отношению к детям очень просто, поскольку, во-первых, дети легче подвержены ему, чем взрослые, а во-вторых, вера в авторитет учителя способствует вере детей в слова, которые говорят педагоги. Зачастую «эффект доверия» бывает тем аргументом, который заставляет учеников поверить словам учителя. К сожалению, взрослые забывают об этом эффекте и сами способствуют развенчанию своего авторитета, произнося слова и не подкрепляя их делом, сами себе противореча.

Основным отличием метода убеждения от остальных методов воздействия в общении является наличие логики. Именно при помощи логики и риторики при убеждении происходит отбор, упорядочение фактов и выводов с целью достижения определенной задачи. При использовании этого метода следует строго придерживаться темы разговора. Важно следить за тем, чтобы все доказательства: факты, цифры, примеры -были уместны, верны и служили основанием для убедительных выводов. Так же важно соблюдать принцип отсутствия противоречия: заключения и выводы не могут противоречить друг другу, должны идти в определенной последовательности, один за другим, а не один возле другого. Еще одно условие -внутреннее ощущение педагогом-психологом равенства его и учеников при убеждении. Педагогу следует относиться к детям как к равным собеседникам, признавать за ними такие же права в аргументации и возражении, принимать их доказательства, избегая стереотипов оценки. Если он не соблюдает перечисленных условий, ученикам в разговоре будет казаться, что психолог «топчется на месте», все применяемые им способы убеждения будут неэффективны, и учитель не добьется своей цели.
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Особенности личности педагога-психолога

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  4. Abstract. Особенности личности психолога-консультанта, 2012
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  5. Требования к личности педагога
    Огромная общественная значимость педагогического труда изначально определила высокие требования к личности учителя. Не случайно еще с древнейших времен общество вручало свое будущее - детей - самым опытным, мудрым, высоконравственным людям. Воспитателем юного Александра Македонского был величайший ученый Греции Аристотель. Основатель педагогики Я.А. Коменский был не только епископом, но и
  6. Особенности личности практического психолога как следствие специфики его профессии
    В современной психологии профессиональной деятельности преобладает экзистенциальная парадигма: в отличие от узкотехнической направленности, господствовавшей с середины XX века и нацеленной на профессиональную ориентацию, тестирование уже имеющихся ПВК, отбор и подбор кадров, сегодня принято считать, что профессиональное становление – это не определенная стадия в развитии
  7. Types of professional activity of a teacher-psychologist
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  8. Сизанов А.Н.. Типология ошибок в деятельности педагога-психолога, 2006
    Статья из журнала: Вестник практической психологии образования. Content. Introduction Основные причины ошибок в деятельности педагогов-психологов. Типология ошибок в работе психолога. Предупреждение ошибок начинающих педагогов-психологов. Заключение.
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    Позиции педагога и психолога в общеобразовательных учреждениях зачастую разделены уже на уровне целеполагания. Педагоги в качестве основной цели своей деятельности видят сформированность у ученика знаний, умений и навыков, а также социальных норм поведения, а психологи считают, что их цель — помощь в развитии личности ученика и выполнение «заказов» педагогов. Соответственно строится и
  10. Развитие личности в зрелом возрасте. Особенности зрелой личности
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  11. Где готовят педагогов-психологов
    Для того чтобы стать профессиональным психологом, необходимо иметь высшее образование по специальности «Психолог» или смежным с ней специальностям («Педагог-психолог», «Преподаватель психологии» и др.). Среднее специальное образование, полученное в педагогическом колледже, не дает права для самостоятельной психологической практики. Такие специалисты (как и бакалавры психологии) могут работать под
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