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Features of psychological science

Psychology is a special type of science. The development of psychology as a science was preceded by the development of two large areas of knowledge: the natural sciences and philosophy; psychology has arisen at the intersection of these areas, so it is still not defined, consider psychology as a natural science or humanitarian. It follows from the above that none of these answers seems to be correct. In the system of human sciences, psychology has a very special place, and for what reasons.



Differences of psychology from other sciences:



1. A person in psychology is both a subject and an object of research;

2. The subject of the study of psychology - the most complex substance of all known to mankind;

3. unique practical consequences;

4. occupies an intermediate position between the philosophical, social sciences;

5. consists of numerous scientific schools and trends, in different ways interpreting the subject of psychological research.



1) First, it is the science of the most complex things that humankind has so far known.

After all, the psyche is a "property of highly organized matter." If we keep in mind the human psyche, then the words “highly organized matter” need to be added with the word “most”: after all, the human brain is the most highly organized matter known to us. It is significant that the eminent ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle begins his treatise On the Soul with the same thought. He believes that among other knowledge, the study of the soul should be given one of the first places, since "it is the knowledge of the most sublime and surprising."

The Armenian poet Paruyr Sevak wrote: “We still don’t even know why a person laughs, only a person, and no one else.”



2) Secondly, the object and the subject of cognition seem to merge in it. As a person explores his consciousness with the help of consciousness.

To clarify this, I will use one comparison. Here is a man born. At first, being in infancy, he does not realize and does not remember himself. However, its development is fast. Formed his physical and mental abilities; he learns to walk, see, understand, talk. With these abilities, he knows the world; begins to act in it; his circle of communication is expanding. And gradually, from the depths of childhood, a very special feeling comes to him and gradually grows - a feeling of one’s own “I”. Somewhere in adolescence, it begins to acquire conscious forms. Questions arise: "Who am I? What am I?", And later, "Why am I?". Those. psychic abilities and functions, which until now have served the child as a means for mastering the external world, physical and social, turn to self-knowledge; they themselves become the subject of reflection and awareness.

Exactly the same process can be traced to the scale of all mankind.
In primitive society, the main forces of people went to the struggle for existence, to master the outside world. People made fire, hunted wild animals, fought with neighboring tribes, received the first knowledge about nature.

Humanity of that period, like a baby, does not remember itself. Gradually the forces and capabilities of humanity grew. Thanks to their mental abilities, people have created a material and spiritual culture; there were writing, art, science. And now the moment came when a man asked himself questions: what are these forces that enable him to create, explore and subjugate the world to himself, what is the nature of his mind, what laws does his inner spiritual life follow?

This moment was the birth of the self-consciousness of humanity, that is, the birth of psychological knowledge. The event that once happened can be briefly expressed as follows: if before a man’s thought was directed to the outside world, now she has turned on herself. The man ventured to start exploring thought itself with the help of thinking.

Thus, in psychology, the scientific consciousness of man becomes his scientific self-consciousness.



3). Thirdly, the peculiarity of psychology lies in its unique practical consequences.

The American psychologist Frank Beach rightly remarked: "The most difficult task in our day is not to know and use the surrounding nature, but to understand the mechanisms of your own behavior and learn to control it."

After all, to know something is to master this "something", to learn to control it. Learning to manage your mental processes, functions, and abilities is, of course, a daunting task. In this case, it is necessary to especially emphasize that, knowing itself, a person will change himself.

Psychology has already accumulated a lot of facts, showing how a person’s new knowledge about himself makes him different: it changes his attitudes, goals, his states and experiences. If we go back to the scale of all mankind, then we can say that psychology is a science, not only knowing, but also constructing, creating man.

4) Psychology, consists of numerous scientific schools and trends, differently interpreting the subject of the study of psychology;

5) It occupies an intermediate position between the philosophical, social sciences.
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