about the project
Medical news
For authors
Licensed books on medicine
<< Previous Next >>

Features of psychological science

Psychology is a science of a special type. The development of psychology as a science was preceded by the development of two large areas of knowledge: the natural sciences and philosophy; Psychology has arisen at the intersection of these areas, so it is still unclear whether psychology is considered to be a natural science or humanitarian. It follows from the foregoing that none of these answers appears to be correct. In the system of human sciences, psychology is given a completely special place, and for these reasons.

Differences of psychology from other sciences:

1. A person in psychology is both a subject and an object of research;

2. The subject of psychology research is the most complex substance of all known to mankind;

3. unique practical implications;

4. occupies an intermediate position between the philosophical, social sciences;

5. consists of numerous scientific schools and trends that interpret the subject of research in psychology differently.

1) Firstly, this is the science of the most complex that is known to mankind.

After all, the psyche is "a property of highly organized matter." If we keep in mind the human psyche, then the word "most" must be added to the words "highly organized matter": after all, the human brain is the most highly organized matter known to us. It is significant that the outstanding Greek philosopher Aristotle began his treatise On the Soul with the same thought. He believes that, among other knowledge, research on the soul should be given one of the first places, since "it is knowledge of the most sublime and amazing."

The Armenian poet Paruyr Sevak wrote: “We still don’t really even know why a man laughs, only a man, and no one else.”

2) Secondly, the object and subject of cognition merge in it, as it were. Since a person explores his consciousness with the help of consciousness.

To clarify this, I will use one comparison. That man is born into the world. At first, while in infancy, he does not realize and does not remember himself. However, its development is proceeding rapidly. His physical and mental abilities are formed; he learns to walk, see, understand, speak. With the help of these abilities he cognizes the world; begins to act in him; the circle of his communication is expanding. And gradually, from the depths of childhood, a very special sensation comes to him and gradually grows - a sense of self. Somewhere in adolescence, it begins to take on conscious forms. Questions arise: "Who am I? What am I?", And later, "Why me?". Those. mental abilities and functions that until now have served the child as a means to master the external world - physical and social, turn to the knowledge of oneself; they themselves become the subject of comprehension and awareness.

The exact same process can be traced to the scale of all mankind.
In primitive society, the main forces of people went to the struggle for existence, to the development of the outside world. People made fire, hunted wild animals, fought with neighboring tribes, received the first knowledge of nature.

Humanity of that period, like a baby, does not remember itself. Gradually, the strength and capabilities of mankind grew. Thanks to their psychic abilities, people have created a material and spiritual culture; writing, art, science appeared. And then the moment came when a person asked himself questions: what are these forces that give him the opportunity to create, explore and subjugate the world, what is the nature of his mind, what laws obey his inner, spiritual life?

This moment was the birth of self-consciousness of mankind, i.e., the birth of psychological knowledge. The event that once happened can be briefly expressed as follows: if earlier a person’s thought was directed to the outside world, now it has turned to itself. A man ventured to begin to explore thinking itself with the help of thinking.

Thus, in psychology, the scientific consciousness of man becomes his scientific self-consciousness.

3). Thirdly, the peculiarity of psychology lies in its unique practical consequences.

The American psychologist Frank Beach rightly remarked: "The most difficult task these days is not to know and use the surrounding nature, but to understand the mechanisms of your own behavior and learn to control it."

Indeed, to know something means to master this “something”, to learn how to manage it. Learning to manage your mental processes, functions, abilities is, of course, a daunting task. At the same time, it must be especially emphasized that, knowing oneself, a person will change himself.

Psychology has already accumulated many facts showing how a person’s new knowledge of himself makes him different: he changes his attitudes, goals, his condition and experiences. If we again turn to the scale of all mankind, then we can say that psychology is a science, not only cognizing, but also constructing, creating man.

4) Psychology, consists of numerous scientific schools and movements that interpret the subject of research in psychology differently;

5) Occupies an intermediate position between the philosophical, social sciences.
<< Previous Next >>
= Skip to textbook content =

Features of psychological science

  1. Military psychology as a branch of psychological science
    At present, more than ever, the hopes of military specialists and leaders of all levels are focused on military psychology. These expectations are associated with the special - applied role of military psychological science in ensuring the effectiveness of the vital activity of troops in both peacetime and wartime. In connection with the inclusion in the combat manuals of the types of the Armed Forces of a section on
  2. Military psychology as a branch of psychological science
    Training issues: 1. The subject of military psychology 2. The basic principles, methods and tasks of military psychology Everyday tasks performed by military specialists (leaders, teachers, military psychologists, etc.) require them to understand the laws of manifestation and formation of the psychology of the personality of a serviceman and military collectives in conditions of various types of military
    The foundations of Russian scientific psychology were also laid in the late XIX - early XX centuries. First of all, we note the natural science direction, which has long-standing traditions coming from MV Lomonosov, embodied in the period under review in the works of V. M, Ankylosing spondylitis, the creator of the direction called “reflexology”. Vladimir Mikhailovich Bekhterev (1857-1927), neuropathologist, psychologist, psychiatrist,
  4. Military psychology as a branch of modern psychological science, its structure and functions
    Military psychology is one of the independent applied branches of modern psychological science. Like any other branch of psychology, it has its own subject and object of study, its own tasks and structure. It should be noted that despite the fairly long period of existence of this branch of psychological science, there is no generally accepted definition of military psychology. Therefore further,
  5. The transformation of military psychology into an independent branch of psychological science
    Since the middle of the XIX century, the emergence of military psychology, as an independent branch of psychological knowledge. The field of study of military psychology is the phenomena associated with combat, the personality of a military man, group military activity. This is expressed in the fact that: an understanding of the subject develops; methods of military psychological research are being developed; stand out clearly
  6. Nodal sections of military-psychological science of the mid-nineteenth and early twentieth centuries
    Russian military-psychological thought is distinguished by the fact that the problem of personality has always stood out in it as the most important. Its scientific development using general psychological and military psychological methods began in the second half of the 19th century. This is due to: Cultural and historical conditions for the development of Russia and the Russian army. The presence of humanistic traditions, moral and ethical
  7. Social, medical and psychological aspects of science
    Valeology (valeologia - lat hello, be healthy) - the science of health. For the first time, the term proposed by prof. I.I. Brechman in 1980, turned out to be quite relevant, capacious and is currently being formalized into science - fundamental and necessary science, first of all, by its need for people who want to devote themselves to education, upbringing, preventive work, treatment and
  10. The formation of age (child) psychology as an independent field of psychological science
    In the psychological teachings of past eras (in the period of antiquity, in the Middle Ages, in the Renaissance), many important questions of the mental development of children1 have already been posed. In the works of the ancient Greek scientists Heraclitus, Democritus, Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, the conditions and factors of the formation of the behavior and personality of children, the development of their thinking, creativity and abilities were considered,
  11. “Psychosocial approach in the context of urgent tasks and the main trends in the development of psychological science in Russia”
    The first chapter presents the author’s view on the history and prospects of development of Russian psychology in the context of solving urgent problems of modern Russian society. Limitedness is shown both in methodological and organizational plans, in modern conditions, of the historically developed paradigm model of the development of psychological science. The expediency of the transition to
  13. Abstract of dissertation for the degree of candidate of psychological sciences. Socio-psychological features of the image of the Russian armed forces in the youth environment, 2005
    Specialty: 19.00.05 - social psychology (psychological sciences) The dissertation was completed at the Department of Psychology of the Military
  14. “Psychological characteristics of the personality of athletes of high qualification of martial arts with a different level of psychological readiness and the development of technology for its long-term forecast”
    In the 5th chapter of the dissertation, empirical research materials are presented that reflect the results of assessing the psychological (characterological, typological) personality characteristics of martial arts athletes with different levels of long-term psychological readiness for competitive activity in extreme situations, as well as evaluating the information content of a set of psychodiagnostic techniques
  15. The dissertation for the degree of candidate of psychological sciences. Psychological features of subjective ideas about the life prospects of participants in local wars, 2004
    Introduction Theoretical and methodological foundations of the study of subjective ideas about the life prospects of participants in local wars. Phenomenology and content of the concept of life perspective as a component of the life path and psychological time of an individual. Psychological characteristics of the personality of participants in local conflicts in the conditions of their return from a traumatic situation of war
  16. Prerequisites for the formation of developmental psychology and developmental psychology into an independent area of ​​psychological science
    The design of developmental psychology (child or developmental psychology) as an independent branch of scientific knowledge dates back to the second half of the 19th century. Two directions were united, until that time developing in parallel and independent of each other. These are studies of child development that have been associated with science and medicine, as well as ethnographic studies of childhood and language, mainly
Medical portal "MedguideBook" © 2014-2019