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Features of psychological science

Psychology is a science of a special type. The development of psychology as a science was preceded by the development of two large areas of knowledge: the natural sciences and philosophy; Psychology has arisen at the intersection of these areas, so it is still unclear whether psychology is considered to be a natural science or humanitarian. It follows from the foregoing that none of these answers appears to be correct. In the system of human sciences, psychology is given a completely special place, and for these reasons.



Differences of psychology from other sciences:



1. A person in psychology is both a subject and an object of research;

2. The subject of psychology research is the most complex substance of all known to mankind;

3. unique practical implications;

4. occupies an intermediate position between the philosophical, social sciences;

5. consists of numerous scientific schools and trends that interpret the subject of research in psychology differently.



1) Firstly, this is the science of the most complex that is known to mankind.

After all, the psyche is "a property of highly organized matter." If we keep in mind the human psyche, then the word "most" must be added to the words "highly organized matter": after all, the human brain is the most highly organized matter known to us. It is significant that the outstanding Greek philosopher Aristotle began his treatise On the Soul with the same thought. He believes that, among other knowledge, research on the soul should be given one of the first places, since "it is knowledge of the most sublime and amazing."

The Armenian poet Paruyr Sevak wrote: “We still don’t really even know why a man laughs, only a man, and no one else.”



2) Secondly, the object and subject of cognition merge in it, as it were. Since a person explores his consciousness with the help of consciousness.

To clarify this, I will use one comparison. That man is born into the world. At first, while in infancy, he does not realize and does not remember himself. However, its development is proceeding rapidly. His physical and mental abilities are formed; he learns to walk, see, understand, speak. With the help of these abilities he cognizes the world; begins to act in him; the circle of his communication is expanding. And gradually, from the depths of childhood, a very special sensation comes to him and gradually grows - a sense of self. Somewhere in adolescence, it begins to take on conscious forms. Questions arise: "Who am I? What am I?", And later, "Why me?". Those. mental abilities and functions that until now have served the child as a means to master the external world - physical and social, turn to the knowledge of oneself; they themselves become the subject of comprehension and awareness.

The exact same process can be traced to the scale of all mankind.
In primitive society, the main forces of people went to the struggle for existence, to the development of the outside world. People made fire, hunted wild animals, fought with neighboring tribes, received the first knowledge of nature.

Humanity of that period, like a baby, does not remember itself. Gradually, the strength and capabilities of mankind grew. Thanks to their psychic abilities, people have created a material and spiritual culture; writing, art, science appeared. And then the moment came when a person asked himself questions: what are these forces that give him the opportunity to create, explore and subjugate the world, what is the nature of his mind, what laws obey his inner, spiritual life?

This moment was the birth of self-consciousness of mankind, i.e., the birth of psychological knowledge. The event that once happened can be briefly expressed as follows: if earlier a person’s thought was directed to the outside world, now it has turned to itself. A man ventured to begin to explore thinking itself with the help of thinking.

Thus, in psychology, the scientific consciousness of man becomes his scientific self-consciousness.



3). Thirdly, the peculiarity of psychology lies in its unique practical consequences.

The American psychologist Frank Beach rightly remarked: "The most difficult task these days is not to know and use the surrounding nature, but to understand the mechanisms of your own behavior and learn to control it."

Indeed, to know something means to master this “something”, to learn how to manage it. Learning to manage your mental processes, functions, abilities is, of course, a daunting task. At the same time, it must be especially emphasized that, knowing oneself, a person will change himself.

Psychology has already accumulated many facts showing how a person’s new knowledge of himself makes him different: he changes his attitudes, goals, his condition and experiences. If we again turn to the scale of all mankind, then we can say that psychology is a science, not only cognizing, but also constructing, creating man.

4) Psychology, consists of numerous scientific schools and movements that interpret the subject of research in psychology differently;

5) Occupies an intermediate position between the philosophical, social sciences.
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Features of psychological science

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